Studien 2004

pubmed: studien aus 2004

NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=((((Noise, Transportation[MeSH Terms]) OR transportation noise[MeSH Terms]) OR aircraft noise[Title]) AND Humans[MeSH Terms]) AND ("2004/01/01"[PDAT] : "2004/12/31"[PDAT])
  • Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study.
    Related Articles

    Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study.

    Noise Health. 2004 Oct-Dec;7(25):49-58

    Authors: Matsui T, Stansfeld S, Haines M, Head J

    Abstract
    The association of aircraft noise exposure with cognitive performance was examined by means of a cross-sectional field survey. Two hundred thirty six children attending 10 primary schools around Heathrow Airport in west London were tested on reading comprehension, immediate/delayed recall and sustained attention. In order to obtain the information about their background, a questionnaire was delivered to the parents and 163 answers were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess performance on the cognitive tests in relation to aircraft noise exposure at home and possible individual and school level confounding factors. A significant dose-response relationship was found between aircraft noise exposure at home and performance on memory tests of immediate/delayed recall. However there was no strong association with the other cognitive outcomes. These results suggest that aircraft noise exposure at home may affect children's memory.

    PMID: 15703149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Protection goals for residents in the vicinity of civil airports.
    Related Articles

    Protection goals for residents in the vicinity of civil airports.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jul-Sep;6(24):51-62

    Authors: Griefahn B, Scheuch K, Jansen G, Spreng M

    Abstract
    Based on extensive and detailed reviews the present paper suggests evaluation criteria for aircraft noise for the prediction of noise effects and for the protection of residents living in the vicinity of (newly constructed or extended) civil airports. The protection concept provides graded evaluation criteria: Critical loads indicate noise loads that shall be tolerated only exceptionally during a limited time. Protection Guides are central evaluation criteria for taking actions to reduce noise immission. Threshold values inform about measurable physiological and psychological reactions due to noise exposures where long term adverse health effects are not expected. Evaluation criteria are provided for various protection goals, for hearing, communication and sleep, for the avoidance of annoyance and of suspected cardiovascular diseases. As protection of the residents is understood as a dynamic process, these criteria must be repeatedly tested and adapted to new scientific findings.

    PMID: 15703141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road traffic noise and annoyance--an increasing environmental health problem.
    Related Articles

    Road traffic noise and annoyance--an increasing environmental health problem.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jul-Sep;6(24):43-9

    Authors: Bluhm G, Nordling E, Berglind N

    Abstract
    Traffic noise, which is steadily increasing, is considered to be an important environmental health problem. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree of annoyance and sleep disturbance related to road traffic noise in residential settings in an urban community. The study is based on a questionnaire on environmentally related health effects distributed to a stratified random sample of 1000 individuals, 19-80 years old, in a municipality with heavy traffic in the county of Stockholm. The response rate was 76%. The individual noise exposure was estimated using evaluated noise dispersion models and local noise assessments. Frequent annoyance was reported by 13% of subjects exposed to Leq 24 hr >50 dBA compared to 2% among those exposed to <50 dBA, resulting in a difference of 11% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 7%, 15%). Sometimes or frequently occurring sleep disturbance was reported by 23% at Leq 24 hr >50 dBA and by 13% at levels <50 dBA, a difference of 11% (95% CI 4%, 18%). A positive exposure- response relation was indicated for annoyance as well as for sleep disturbances when classifying the individuals into four different exposure categories (< 45, 46- 50, 51-55 and >55 dBA Leq 24 hr). There was some habituation to noise for problems related to sleep but not for annoyance. The prevalence of both annoyance and sleep problems was higher when bedroom windows were facing streets. People living in apartments had more sleep problems compared to people living in detached or semi-detached houses. In conclusion traffic noise exposure, even at low levels, was associated with annoyance and sleep disturbance. Access to a quiet side seemed to be a major protective factor for noise related problems.

    PMID: 15703140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Nocturnal awakenings due to aircraft noise. Do wake-up reactions begin at sound level 60 dB(A)?
    Related Articles

    Nocturnal awakenings due to aircraft noise. Do wake-up reactions begin at sound level 60 dB(A)?

    Noise Health. 2004 Jul-Sep;6(24):21-33

    Authors: Maschke C, Hecht K, Wolf U

    Abstract
    Night-time wake-up thresholds at noise levels of 60 dB(A) are frequently employed in Germany to establish "noise polluted areas". The criterion is, however, based on an incorrect processing of statistical data gathered from an evaluation of literature performed by Griefahn et al. (1976). This finding has emerged from an extensive revision of the study. Using appropriate statistical methods, maximum levels of under 48 dB(A) are assessed as waking-up thresholds at ear level in sleeping persons, in contrast to maximum levels of 60 dB(A) calculated by Griefahn et al. in 1976. The linear dose-response relationship, which in the course of the revision could be derived from the early publications, agrees with the results of more recent literature evaluations. The present contribution is not intended to give rise to the question whether in the interest of medical prevention it is reasonable to develop night-time protective policies merely founded on noise levels marking the "statistical" onset of nocturnal wake-up reactions. In this context, emphasis is laid on the deformation of the biological rhythm of sleep.

    PMID: 15703138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Requirements for the protection against aircraft noise.
    Related Articles

    Requirements for the protection against aircraft noise.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jul-Sep;6(24):9-19

    Authors: Wende H, Ortscheid J

    Abstract
    In preparation of the revised edition of the Air Traffic Noise Act the Federal Environmental Agency formulated targets for aircraft noise control. They were prepared oriented to the Federal Immission Control Act. The assessment periods were chosen analogously to the regulations on other traffic noise sources (rail traffic, road traffic). The control targets cover the following affected areas * aural, extra-aural health * night's sleep * annoyance * communication * recreation Considerable nuisance can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise(outside) to equivalent levels below 55 dB(A) by day and 45 dB(A) at night, and impairment of health can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise (outside) to equivalent levels below 60 dB(A) by day and 50 dB(A) at night.

    PMID: 15703137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Stress effects of noise in a field experiment in comparison to reactions to short term noise exposure in the laboratory.
    Related Articles

    Stress effects of noise in a field experiment in comparison to reactions to short term noise exposure in the laboratory.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jul-Sep;6(24):1-7

    Authors: Ising H, Michalak R

    Abstract
    Reactions to noise-induced communication disturbance of 42 men during a seminar were investigated. Stress reactions with or without road traffic noise (Lm = 60 dBA) were compared. Traffic noise was played back via loudspeakers during one day in the seminar room. The following parameters were measured: Fatigue and mental tension by questionnaire; blood pressure and heart rate; excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cAMP from the collected urine. The same subjects participated in a laboratory test where the blood pressure was measured during 5 minutes of rest and after 5 minutes of exposure to intermittent white noise (Lm=97 dBA). It was found that the noise in the field experiment caused psychological and physiological stress effects in half of the subjects. Increased mental tension was correlated to increases as well as decreases of the blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure reactions were stronger than the reactions of diastolic blood pressure. Noise sensitive subjects reacted stronger than the others. In the short-term laboratory test, systolic blood pressure increases were smaller than the diastolic increases. At the end of the 5 minutes noise exposure only the diastolic blood pressure increases were significant. There was no correlation between the blood pressure reactions in the two different noise exposure experiments. There existed a positive correlation between noise sensitivity and the systolic blood pressure increases during the seminar, whilst the correlation, between noise sensitivity and systolic blood pressure increases in the laboratory exposure, was negative. From these results we conclude that short-term noise exposure experiments do not provide information about the effects of long-term real life exposure to environmental noise. Potential health effects of chronic noise-induced disturbances of activities are discussed.

    PMID: 15703136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Improving road safety and residential quality of life : evaluating the automated wayside horn system.
    Related Articles

    Improving road safety and residential quality of life : evaluating the automated wayside horn system.

    Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2004;3(2):71-8

    Authors: Lucke RE, Raub RA, Thunder TE

    Abstract
    The automated wayside horn system is designed to replace the train horn as a means of alerting motorists to danger and thus enhancing safety at highway-rail grade crossings. Furthermore, the wayside horn directionality is such that the warning sound is broadcast over a smaller sector than the train horn, thereby reducing residential noise. This article examines the results of an evaluation comparing train horns with wayside horns in the village of Mundelein, Illinois, USA. The study derived from previous work in Gering, Nebraska, and Ames, Iowa.During the 3 months covering the 'before' (train horn) period and through to 'after' (wayside horn), more than 19 500 crossing gate closures were recorded on videotape at three crossings. Analysis showed motorist violation of level-crossing laws decreased 68%, from an average rate of 3.53 per 100 gate closings when train horns were in use to 1.12 per 100 with the wayside horn. The decrease was statistically significant. Of equal importance was the decrease in residential noise. Sound measurements taken in a sample of residential yards showed a decrease in sound levels by more than 10 decibels (dB) at most locations. When plotted as sound contours, decreases in the area of coverage ranged from 85% at the 90dB level to 65% at the 70dB level.However, there are two issues with the use of wayside horns that need to be resolved. First, and most important, is that the wayside horn starts sounding when the warning lights begin to flash. This startles motorists, and some stop on the rail tracks. A second issue is the frequent unwarranted activation of the system, which encourages people to ignore the gate.

    PMID: 15702944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Annoyance from multiple transportation noise: statistical models and outlier detection.
    Related Articles

    Annoyance from multiple transportation noise: statistical models and outlier detection.

    Methods Inf Med. 2004;43(5):510-5

    Authors: Kuhnt S, Schürmann C, Griefahn B

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: Statistical models for the annoyance from multiple transportation noise are needed to understand and predict the annoyance resulting from specific noise exposures.
    METHODS: Models from the class of generalized linear models are suggested and discussed. Observations which are not well explained by the considered model are regarded as outliers. Outlier detection methods are applied to the data modelled by robust estimates using different link functions.
    RESULTS: The discussed methods are applied to data from a laboratory experiment using generalized linear models. While considering outliers, a generalized linear model with a complementary log-log link is found to be a good choice in modelling the exposure-response relationship between noise levels and annoyance.

    PMID: 15702211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The role of noise sensitivity in the noise-response relation: a comparison of three international airport studies.
    Related Articles

    The role of noise sensitivity in the noise-response relation: a comparison of three international airport studies.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Dec;116(6):3471-9

    Authors: van Kamp I, Job RF, Hatfield J, Haines M, Stellato RK, Stansfeld SA

    Abstract
    In order to examine the role of noise sensitivity in response to environmental noise, this paper presents detailed comparisons of socio-acoustic studies conducted around international airports in Amsterdam, Sydney, and London. Earlier findings that noise sensitivity moderates the effect of noise on annoyance were examined to see if they could be replicated in each of the datasets, independent of the technique of measuring noise sensitivity. The relation between exposure to aircraft noise and noise annoyance was studied separately for groups of individuals with low, medium, and high noise sensitivity, with statistical adjustment for relevant confounders. Results support the previous findings that noise sensitivity is an independent predictor of annoyance and adds to the prediction of noise annoyance afforded by noise exposure level by up to 26% of explained variance. There is no evidence of a moderating effect, whereby the covariation between noise exposure level and annoyance is weak for people who score at the extreme high or low end of the sensitivity scale, and strong for people who score in the middle of the sensitivity scale. Generally, noise sensitivity appears to increase annoyance independently of the level of noise exposure after adjustment for relevant confounders. These findings were consistent across the three datasets.

    PMID: 15658698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Assessment of acoustic environment and its effect on hearing in jet engine technical personnel].
    Related Articles

    [Assessment of acoustic environment and its effect on hearing in jet engine technical personnel].

    Med Pr. 2004;55(4):329-35

    Authors: Konopka W, Pawlaczyk-Luszczyńska M, Straszyński P, Sliwińska-Kowalska M

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Noise produced by jet engines may be harmful to aircraft servicing personnel because of high levels of acoustic pressure. The aim of the study was to assess the acoustic environment of persons exposed to jet engine noise and its effect on hearing.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Noise measurements were performed on three jet engines. During the target practice, the following parameters were measured: equivalent noise, pressure level A, maximum sound pressure level A, and peak sound pressure level C. The spectro-analysis covering the range from 0.1 to 20 kHz was conducted. Hearing was assessed in 50 noise-exposed men, aged 24-51 years (mean age, 35.5 years), using PTA, tympanometry and DPOAE. The control group consisted of 40 non-exposed persons with good hearing condition.
    RESULTS: Maximum levels of acoustic pressure exceeded Polish standards. Comparison between two groups showed that PTA was higher in the exposed persons by 6.3-6.8 dB on average and DPOAE was reduced in the group exposed to jet engine noise more than it could have been expected.
    CONCLUSIONS: Even during a single test, aircraft technical personnel was exposed to (audible) noise that significantly exceeded admissible values. The reduction in DPOAE values in persons exposed to noise of jet engines was incommensurably higher than changes in PTA.

    PMID: 15620042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The percentage of the population exposed to harmful acoustic pollution levels resulting from vehicular traffic in the Hospital' area of Turin.
    Related Articles

    The percentage of the population exposed to harmful acoustic pollution levels resulting from vehicular traffic in the Hospital' area of Turin.

    Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;111(4):385-9

    Authors: Giovinetto R, Roletti S, Saporiti F

    Abstract
    This paper presents the methodology and the main results of a study that has as its principal aim, the experimental identification the application and the quantification of the sustainable indicator 'Percentage of the population exposed to acoustic pollution levels' in the 'Hospital' area of Turin. The investigation of this indicator was prompted by the province of Turin's previous categorisation as 'Lead City' in the project 'Towards a support description at local the level--European Community Indicators'. Alongside, the process of experimenting, applying and quantifying the sustainable indicator--and as a logical fit with what was foreseen by the Italian normative regulation on protection against environmental acoustic pollution--the study supplies the base elements to analyse the environmental acoustic climate conditions in an important area of the city and defines the interaction tools that are the environmental indicators for the town council's future Acoustic Restoration Plan (PRA).

    PMID: 15550707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effects of noise and gender on children's episodic and semantic memory.
    Related Articles

    The effects of noise and gender on children's episodic and semantic memory.

    Scand J Psychol. 2004 Nov;45(5):407-16

    Authors: Boman E

    Abstract
    The main objectives in the present study were to examine meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise effects on episodic and semantic memory, and to evaluate whether gender differences in memory performance interact with noise. A total of 96 subjects, aged 13-14 years (n = 16 boys and 16 girls in each of three groups), were randomly assigned to a silent or two noise conditions. Noise effects found were restricted to impairments from meaningful irrelevant speech on recognition and cued recall of a text in episodic memory and of word comprehension in semantic memory. The obtained noise effect suggests that the meaning of the speech were processed semantically by the pupils, which reduced their ability to comprehend a text that also involved processing of meaning. Meaningful irrelevant speech was also assumed to cause a poorer access to the knowledge base in semantic memory. Girls outperformed boys in episodic and semantic memory materials, but these differences did not interact with noise.

    PMID: 15535809 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on teachers' attention, episodic and semantic memory.
    Related Articles

    The effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on teachers' attention, episodic and semantic memory.

    Scand J Psychol. 2004 Nov;45(5):393-405

    Authors: Enmarker I

    Abstract
    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on attention, episodic and semantic memory, and also to examine whether the noise effects were age-dependent. A total of 96 male and female teachers in the age range of 35-45 and 55-65 years were randomly assigned to a silent or the two noise conditions. Noise effects found in episodic memory were limited to a meaningful text, where cued recall contrary to expectations was equally impaired by the two types of noise. However, meaningful irrelevant speech also deteriorated recognition of the text, whereas road traffic noise caused no decrement. Retrieval from two word fluency tests in semantic memory showed strong effects of noise exposure, one affected by meaningful irrelevant speech and the other by road traffic noise. The results implied that both acoustic variation and the semantic interference could be of importance for noise impairments. The expected age-dependent noise effects did not show up.

    PMID: 15535808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Subjective response of people to simulated sonic booms in their homes.
    Related Articles

    Subjective response of people to simulated sonic booms in their homes.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Sep;116(3):1573-84

    Authors: McCurdy DA, Brown SA, Hilliard RD

    Abstract
    In order to determine the effect of the number of sonic boom occurrences on annoyance, a computer-based system was developed for studying the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The system provided a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys and a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory. A system was deployed for eight weeks in each of 33 homes. Each day from 4 to 63 sonic booms were played as the test subject went about his or her normal activities. At the end of the day, the test subjects rated their annoyance to the sonic booms heard during the day. The sonic booms consisted of different combinations of waveforms, levels, and occurrence rates. The experiment confirmed that the increase in annoyance resulting from multiple occurrences can be modeled by the addition of the term "10 * log(number of occurrences)" to the sonic boom level. Of several noise metrics considered, perceived level was the best annoyance predictor. Comparisons of the subjective responses to the different sonic boom waveforms found no differences that were not accounted for by the noise metrics.

    PMID: 15478423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Relationship between exposure to multiple noise sources and noise annoyance.
    Related Articles

    Relationship between exposure to multiple noise sources and noise annoyance.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Aug;116(2):949-57

    Authors: Miedema HM

    Abstract
    Relationships between exposure to noise [metric: day-night level (DNL) or day-evening-night level (DENL)] from a single source (aircraft, road traffic, or railways) and annoyance based on a large international dataset have been published earlier. Also for stationary sources relationships have been assessed. Here the annoyance equivalents model concerning noise annoyance from combined sources and the underlying assumptions are presented. The model first translates the noise from the individual sources into the equally annoying sound levels of a reference source, road traffic, and then sums these levels giving total level L. The annoyance from the combined sources is found by substituting exposure L in the road traffic exposure-annoyance relationship. The most important assumption, independence of the contributions of the sources, is discussed. It appears that independence will be violated substantially only due to the effect of the presence or absence of a quiet side of building which is not incorporated in the model. For use in practice the application of the model is broken down in five steps. The step by step procedure can be used for the assessment of the total noise level and the associated total annoyance on the basis of the DNL or DENL values of the individual sources.

    PMID: 15376661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Unhealthy airports.
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    Unhealthy airports.

    Lancet. 2004 Aug 21-27;364(9435):646-8

    Authors: Banatvala J

    PMID: 15325814 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables.
    Related Articles

    Annoyance with aircraft noise in local recreational areas, contingent on changes in exposure and other context variables.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Jul;116(1):323-33

    Authors: Krog NH, Engdahl B

    Abstract
    Few socioacoustic studies have examined the effect of noise on outdoor recreationists. The areas studied have been mountain and wilderness areas that people typically travel for a distance to visit. In this article we examine the reactions to aircraft noise in local recreational areas experiencing either decreased (1930 survey respondents), or increased noise exposure (1001 survey respondents). Field studies were conducted before and after the relocation the main airport of Norway in 1998 in one area near each airport. The relationship between individual noise exposure (LAeq for the aircraft events, percentage of time aircraft were audible, and LAsel) for the aircraft events. The analyses included the "situation" in which data were collected (before or after the relocation), and variables describing the recreational context. A strong effect of the "situation" was found in both cases, but the size of the effect was influenced by the choice of exposure variable in one of the study areas. Other context variables were also influencing annoyance. The effect of the situation (before/after a change in exposure) on the dose-response relationship may be influenced by the initial noise levels, the amount of change, and the time elapsed since the change at the time of the second survey. Further research should investigate the significance of these variables.

    PMID: 15295993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of low frequency noise on sleep.
    Related Articles

    Effects of low frequency noise on sleep.

    Noise Health. 2004 Apr-Jun;6(23):87-91

    Authors: Persson Waye K

    Abstract
    Low frequency noise (20-200 Hz) is emitted by numerous sources in the society. As low frequencies propagate with little attenuation through walls and windows, many people may be exposed to low frequency noise in their dwellings. Sleep disturbance, especially with regard to time to fall asleep and tiredness in the morning, are commonly reported in case studies on low frequency noise. However, the number of studies where sleep disturbance is investigated in relation to the low frequencies in the noise is limited. Based on findings from available epidemiological and experimental studies, the review gives indications that sleep disturbance due to low frequency noise warrants further concern.

    PMID: 15273026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise exposure during alpine helicopter rescue operations.
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    Noise exposure during alpine helicopter rescue operations.

    Ann Occup Hyg. 2004 Jul;48(5):475-81

    Authors: Küpper TE, Steffgen J, Jansing P

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: We estimated the noise exposure of crews working in alpine helicopter rescue systems.
    METHODS: Noise levels of the the helicopters used (Alouette III, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil and BK 117) were measured with a device according to class 2 DIN IEC 651. These data were combined with the flight data of the personnel to evaluate the equivalent noise level according to DIN 45645-2.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: While the risk to patients should be limited to temporary threshold shifts the crew members are regularly exposed to equivalent noise levels of >85 dB(A) and, therefore, are at risk of permanent threshold shifts. Consequences for crew fitness to fly and for noise prevention (crew and patients) are discussed.

    PMID: 15240334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Health assessment of populations living close to the airport of Bourgas, Bulgaria.
    Related Articles

    Health assessment of populations living close to the airport of Bourgas, Bulgaria.

    Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2004 Apr;55(1):5-10

    Authors: Turnovska T, Staykova J, Petkov T

    Abstract
    The aim of this follow-up performed in a period of three years (1997-1999) was to assess the morbidity rate among children (0-17 years) and adults (18 years and above) from housing estates Sarafovo, Izgrev, Zornitsa and party Slaveykov, located close to the airport of Bourgas and compare it to population living at more distance from the airport (town centre). It was found that the prevalence of all diseases in children and the incidence in adults were higher in populations living close to the airport than in matching population living in the town centre. Specific groups of diseases which may be considered more closely associated with the adverse health effects of noise included diseases of the nervous system and of the sense organs, mental disorders, cardiovascular diseases, particularly arterial hypertension, and diseases of the digestive system. It is worth noting, however, that some diseases whose relationship with the effects of aircraft noise was not expected to be that of cause and effect were also found in higher prevalence or incidence rate in exposed populations. This indicates that other factors, which were not sufficiently analysed in this study, deserve full consideration in the evaluation of the results obtained.

    PMID: 15137176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effect of noise on the health of children.
    Related Articles

    The effect of noise on the health of children.

    J Nippon Med Sch. 2004 Feb;71(1):5-10

    Authors: Kawada T

    Abstract
    The effects of noise on health, especially that of children, were reviewed. (1) From the point of view of disturbance of daily living, subjective recognition of "noisiness" is an important issue in relation to the study of noise. Concerning the effects of airplane noise on school children, while no effects on the hearing level were detected, a significant increase in the complaint of "noisiness" was observed. (2) Exposure of pregnant women to airplane noise was found to be associated with a decrease in the body weight of newborn babies. Moreover, the height of 3-year-old boys and girls was found to be significantly decreased in association with increase in the environmental noise. (3) Noise levels that seemed to have some influence on the sleep of adults did not affect the sleep of children. (4) In a group of children living in noisy districts exhibiting poor academic performance, the academic performance seemed to become progressively worse as the school grade advanced. (5) No consensus has been arrived at in regard to headphone-induced hearing impairment. Researches and studies effective enough to influence policy decisions must be continually conducted in the future, with appropriate control for related factors.

    PMID: 15129589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Annoyance caused by the sounds of a magnetic levitation train.
    Related Articles

    Annoyance caused by the sounds of a magnetic levitation train.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Apr;115(4):1597-608

    Authors: Vos J

    Abstract
    In a laboratory study, the annoyance caused by the passby sounds from a magnetic levitation (maglev) train was investigated. The listeners were presented with various sound fragments. The task of the listeners was to respond after each presentation to the question: "How annoying would you find the sound in the preceding period if you were exposed to it at home on a regular basis?" The independent variables were (a) the driving speed of the maglev train (varying from 100 to 400 km/h), (b) the outdoor A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL) of the passbys (varying from 65 to 90 dB), and (c) the simulated outdoor-to-indoor reduction in sound level (windows open or windows closed). As references to the passby sounds from the maglev train (type Transrapid 08), sounds from road traffic (passenger cars and trucks) and more conventional railway (intercity trains) were included for rating also. Four important results were obtained. Provided that the outdoor ASELs were the same, (1) the annoyance was independent of the driving speed of the maglev train, (2) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was considerably higher than that caused by the intercity train, (3) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was hardly different from that caused by road traffic, and (4) the results (1)-(3) held true both for open or closed windows. On the basis of the present results, it might be expected that the sounds are equally annoying if the ASELs of the maglev-train passbys are at least 5 dB lower than those of the intercity train passbys. Consequently, the results of the present experiment do not support application of a railway bonus to the maglev-train sounds.

    PMID: 15101639 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise around a large international airport and its impact on general health and medication use.
    Related Articles

    Aircraft noise around a large international airport and its impact on general health and medication use.

    Occup Environ Med. 2004 May;61(5):405-13

    Authors: Franssen EA, van Wiechen CM, Nagelkerke NJ, Lebret E

    Abstract
    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of general health status, use of sleep medication, and use of medication for cardiovascular diseases, and to study their relation to aircraft noise exposure.
    METHODS: These health indicators were measured by a cross-sectional survey among 11 812 respondents living within a radius of 25 km around Schiphol airport (Amsterdam).
    RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.02 to 2.34 per 10 dB(A) increase in L(den). The associations were statistically significant for all indicators, except for use of prescribed sleep medication or sedatives and frequent use of this medication. None of the health indicators were associated with aircraft noise exposure during the night, but use of non-prescribed sleep medication or sedatives was associated with aircraft noise exposure during the late evening (OR = 1.72). Vitality related health complaints such as tiredness and headache were associated with aircraft noise, whereas most other physical complaints were not. Odds ratios for the vitality related complaints ranged from 1.16 to 1.47 per 10 dB(A) increase in L(den). A small fraction of the prevalence of poor self rated health (0.13), medication for cardiovascular diseases or increased blood pressure (0.08), and sleep medication or sedatives (0.22) could be attributed to aircraft noise. Although the attributable fraction was highest in the governmentally noise regulated area, aircraft noise had more impact in the non-regulated area, due to the larger population.
    CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest associations between community exposure to aircraft noise and the health indicators poor general health status, use of sleep medication, and use of medication for cardiovascular diseases.

    PMID: 15090660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.
    Related Articles

    Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):83-93

    Authors: Basner M, Samel A

    Abstract
    Noise protection associated with the construction and extension of airports in the Federal Republic of Germany has been regulated by the law for protection against aircraft noise since 1971. This legislation is due for revision because of different aspects. One aspect is the growth of air traffic which has led many airports to the limits of their capacity and in search of new ways of adaptation to the increasing demand for flight services. Another aspect is the increasing concern of the population about noise effects which has to be addressed by better protection against the effects of aircraft noise. The framework conditions of policy in terms of society as a whole, its health and economic environment need to be put into effect by political action. Science can contribute to this goal by performing noise effects research and by providing recommendations to the political body. However, it remains controversial, what measures are necessary or adequate to assure effective protection of the population against aircraft noise. This is particularly true for the protection of rest and sleep at night. The problem of finding a common basis for adequate recommendations is associated with (1) the low number of primary studies, which also exhibited highly variable results and assessments, (2) the handling of acoustic or psycho-acoustic dimensions for quantifying psychological or physiological reactions, and (3) the conception of how far preventive measures have to go to prove effective. With this in mind, the DLR Institute for Aerospace Medicine is conducting a large-scale, multi-stage study for investigating the acute effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on human sleep. This enterprise is implemented in the framework of the HGF/DLR project "Quiet Air Traffic" for developing sustainable assessment criteria for human-specific effects of aircraft noise at night.

    PMID: 15070533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Health aspects of extra-aural noise research.
    Related Articles

    Health aspects of extra-aural noise research.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):69-81

    Authors: Babisch W

    Abstract
    The WHO definition of "health" is critically discussed in its broad context. Decision making in noise policy has to be made in the evaluation range between social and physical well-being. The term "adverse" is a crucial one in the process of risk characterization. In toxicological terms it refers to the single event itself; in psychosocial terms it refers to the relative number of people affected. The evidence of the association between community noise and cardiovascular outcomes is evaluated. The results of epidemiological studies in this field can be used for decision making when assessing maximum acceptable noise levels in the community. Since dose response relationships were mostly studied with respect to road traffic noise, inferences have to be made with respect to aircraft noise. Issues of statistical inferring are discussed.

    PMID: 15070532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Special assessment of aircraft noise effects during night by the Council of Experts for Environmental Questions of FRG.
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    Special assessment of aircraft noise effects during night by the Council of Experts for Environmental Questions of FRG.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):65-7

    Authors: Scheuch K

    Abstract
    The "Special Assessment of Environment and Health" (SAEH) by the Council of Experts for Environmental Questions of Federal Republic of Germany is presented regarding to it's statements concerning the consequences of aircraft noise during night. Considering the issue of sustainability it is emphasized that lower limit values of the validity of scientific results need to be accepted. As the discussion of the literature shows the statements of the Council are rather vague and warily. This is a question of used parameters of noise effects during the night as well as its interpretation. It seems necessary to utilize a hierarchical structure of limit values and with interpretation of the term "threshold" as normal physiological reactions. More investigations are necessary in this field.

    PMID: 15070531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • How to forecast community annoyance in planning noisy facilities.
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    How to forecast community annoyance in planning noisy facilities.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):59-64

    Authors: Guski R

    Abstract
    When planning the development or reduction of large traffic facilities, acoustic calculation procedures are used to forecast the noise load in the affected residential areas. Then, existing dose/response relationships for steady state situations are used to predict noise effects in future years. Planners often assume that (1) noise annoyance reactions of residents do not change over the years, and (2) annoyance is not affected by the change itself. Both of these assumptions are questioned in this paper, and a procedure for estimating future annoyance in changed noise situations is proposed. This includes the analysis of possible statistical trends of the annoyance reactions over the years - even for steady-state noise loads, and with changing state situations, the effects of the change should also be accounted for.

    PMID: 15070530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise and times of day: possibilities of redistributing and influencing noise exposure.
    Related Articles

    Aircraft noise and times of day: possibilities of redistributing and influencing noise exposure.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):55-8

    Authors: Hoeger R

    Abstract
    Disturbing effects of aircraft noise depend on the time of day at which the sound sources emerge. The reason can be seen in different human activities which vary qualitatively throughout the day. Especially in the evening and during the night people are more sensitive against noise induced disturbances which is a result of several field studies. Additionally there exists empirical evidence that human performance behaviour profits by keeping the night period free of sound exposure. As a consequence of these findings it is discussed whether the existing air traffic should be rescheduled to the daytime. It is argued that not only noise rescheduling needs to be considered, but also the spatial redistribution of air traffic volume. In using a mix of rescheduling techniques and administrative possibilities, significant reductions of aircraft noise exposure can be achieved.

    PMID: 15070529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise induced nocturnal cortisol secretion and tolerable overhead flights.
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    Noise induced nocturnal cortisol secretion and tolerable overhead flights.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):35-47

    Authors: Spreng M

    Abstract
    Mainly dependent on level and dynamic increase sound produces over-shooting excitations which activate subcortical processing centers (e.g. the amygdala, functioning as fear conditioning center) besides cortical areas (e. g. arousing annoyance, awakenings) as well. In addition there exist very close central nervous connections between subcortical parts of the auditory system (e.g. amygdala) showing typical plasticity effects (sensitization) and the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Using that causal chain noise induce cortisol excretion even below the awakening threshold. Thus repeated noise events (e.g. overflights during night time) may lead to accumulation of the cortisol level in blood. This can happen because its time-constant of exponential decrease is about 50 to 10 times larger than that one for adrenaline and noradrenaline. This fact and the unusual large permeability of cortisol through the cell membranes opens a wide field of connections between stress-dependent cortisol production and the disturbance of a large number of other endocrine processes, especially as a result of long-term stress activation by environmental influences such as environmental noise. Based upon a physiological model calculating the cortisol accumulation starting at a nightly threshold of physiological over-proportional reactions around Lmax = 53 dB(A) the number of tolerable noise events (over-flights in a nightly time range) can be estimated for given indoor peak sound pressure levels, keeping the cortisol increase within the normal range. Examples of results for 8 hours in the night are for instance number and level combinations (NAL-values) of 13 events with 53 dB(A) indoor peak level or 6 events with 70 dB(A) indoor peak level respectively.

    PMID: 15070527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Disturbed sleep patterns and limitation of noise.
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    Disturbed sleep patterns and limitation of noise.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):27-33

    Authors: Griefahn B, Spreng M

    Abstract
    Due to the undisputable restorative function of sleep, noise-induced sleep disturbances are regarded as the most deleterious effects of noise. They comprise alterations during bedtimes such as awakenings, sleep stage changes, body movements and after-effects such as subjectively felt decrease of sleep quality, impairment of mood and performance. The extents of these reactions depend on the information content of noise, on its acoustical parameters and are modified by individual influences and by situational conditions. Intermittent noise, that is produced by air traffic, rail traffic and by road traffic during the night is particularly disturbing and needs to be reduced. Suitable limits are suggested.

    PMID: 15070526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Arousals and aircraft noise - environmental disorders of sleep and health in terms of sleep medicine.
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    Arousals and aircraft noise - environmental disorders of sleep and health in terms of sleep medicine.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):15-26

    Authors: Raschke F

    Abstract
    World wide rules for sleep staging originate to 1967. Since then many investigations aimed to give numbers for the degree of sleep disturbances due to air traffic noise. But the variables used, such as the amount of relative sleep stages, total sleep time, or sleep efficiency, could not explain impairment in health and performance sufficiently. The beginning of the eighties has given new insight into the restorative functions of sleep, according to sleep fragmentation by micro-arousals. These are originating in autonomous dysfunctions during sleep, leading to non-restorative sleep. Environmentally related sleep disturbances are described, EEG and vegetative (micro)-arousals, and the actual knowledge in sleep medicine is given in terms of the international classification of sleep disorders (ICSD). The effects on health, and disturbed performance capacity during the day are shown by self ratings of 160 patients. Elevated metabolic rate caused by micro-arousal and/or insomnia, may play an additional role in health impairment.

    PMID: 15070525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Health effects caused by noise: evidence in the literature from the past 25 years.
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    Health effects caused by noise: evidence in the literature from the past 25 years.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):5-13

    Authors: Ising H, Kruppa B

    Abstract
    Traffic noise is the most important source of environmental annoyance. According to the Environmental Expert Council of Germany, severe annoyance persistent over prolonged periods of time is to be regarded as causing distress. Previously, extraaural noise effects were mostly assessed using a paradigm in which the sound level played the major role. On the basis of this paradigm the relatively low sound level of environmental noise was not considered to be a potential danger to health. In contrast to this numerous empirical results have shown long-term noise-induced health risks. Therefore a radical change of attitude - a change of paradigm - is necessary. For an immediate triggering of protective reactions (fight/flight or defeat reactions) the information conveyed by noise is very often more relevant than the sound level. It was shown recently that the first and fastest signal detection is mediated by a subcortical area - the amygdala. For this reason even during sleep the noise from aeroplanes or heavy goods vehicles may be categorised as danger signals and induce the release of stress hormones. In accordance with the noise stress hypothesis chronic stress hormone dysregulations as well as increases of established endogenous risk factors of ischaemic heart diseases have been observed under long-term environmental noise exposure. Therefore, an increased risk of myocardial infarction is to be expected. The results of individual studies on this subject in most cases do not reach statistical significance. However, according to the Environmental Expert Council, these studies show a consistent trend towards an increased cardiovascular risk if the daytime immission level exceeds 65 dB(A). Most of the previous studies on the extraaural effects of occupational noise have been invalidated by exposure misclassifications. In future studies on health effects of noise a correct exposure assessment is one of the most important preconditions.

    PMID: 15070524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Exposure to night-time flight noise.
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    Exposure to night-time flight noise.

    Noise Health. 2004 Jan-Mar;6(22):1-2

    Authors: Ising H

    PMID: 15070522 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Wideband RELAX and wideband CLEAN for aeroacoustic imaging.
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    Wideband RELAX and wideband CLEAN for aeroacoustic imaging.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Feb;115(2):757-67

    Authors: Wang Y, Li J, Stoica P, Sheplak M, Nishida T

    Abstract
    Microphone arrays can be used for acoustic source localization and characterization in wind tunnel testing. In this paper, the wideband RELAX (WB-RELAX) and the wideband CLEAN (WB-CLEAN) algorithms are presented for aeroacoustic imaging using an acoustic array. WB-RELAX is a parametric approach that can be used efficiently for point source imaging without the sidelobe problems suffered by the delay-and-sum beamforming approaches. WB-CLEAN does not have sidelobe problems either, but it behaves more like a nonparametric approach and can be used for both point source and distributed source imaging. Moreover, neither of the algorithms suffers from the severe performance degradations encountered by the adaptive beamforming methods when the number of snapshots is small and/or the sources are highly correlated or coherent with each other. A two-step optimization procedure is used to implement the WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN algorithms efficiently. The performance of WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN is demonstrated by applying them to measured data obtained at the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility using a small aperture directional array (SADA). Somewhat surprisingly, using these approaches, not only were the parameters of the dominant source accurately determined, but a highly correlated multipath of the dominant source was also discovered.

    PMID: 15000187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • External and internal noise surveys of London primary schools.
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    External and internal noise surveys of London primary schools.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Feb;115(2):730-8

    Authors: Shield B, Dockrell JE

    Abstract
    Internal and external noise surveys have been carried out around schools in London, UK, to provide information on typical levels and sources to which children are exposed while at school. Noise levels were measured outside 142 schools, in areas away from flight paths into major airports. Here 86% of the schools surveyed were exposed to noise from road traffic, the average external noise level outside a school being 57 dB L(Aeq). Detailed internal noise surveys have been carried out in 140 classrooms in 16 schools, together with classroom observations. It was found that noise levels inside classrooms depend upon the activities in which the children are engaged, with a difference of 20 dB L(Aeq) between the "quietest" and "noisiest" activities. The average background noise level in classrooms exceeds the level recommended in current standards. The number of children in the classroom was found to affect noise levels. External noise influenced internal noise levels only when children were engaged in the quietest classroom activities. The effects of the age of the school buildings and types of window upon internal noise were examined but results were inconclusive.

    PMID: 15000185 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Longitudinal surveys on effects of changes in road traffic noise-annoyance, activity disturbances, and psycho-social well-being.
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    Longitudinal surveys on effects of changes in road traffic noise-annoyance, activity disturbances, and psycho-social well-being.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Feb;115(2):719-29

    Authors: Ohrström E

    Abstract
    The adverse effects of long-term exposure to a high volume of road traffic were studied in socio-acoustic surveys in 1997 and in 1999 after a substantial reduction in road traffic. The results obtained in 1997 showed a similar response pattern as in previously performed studies in the area in 1986 [Ohrström, J. Sound Vib. 122, 277-290 (1989)]. In 1999, road traffic had been reduced from 25000 to 2400 vehicles per day, and this resulted not only in a large decrease in annoyance and activity disturbances, but also in a better general well-being. The results suggest that a reduction in both noise and other pollutants from road traffic contribute to these effects. To be able to use the outdoor environment and to have the possibility to keep windows open is essential for general well-being and daily behavior, which implies that access both to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of the residency is of importance for achievement of a healthy sound environment. More knowledge of long-term health consequences of exposure to noise and simultaneous pollutants from road traffic is needed. Studies should focus more on "softer" health outcomes and well-being than hitherto and preferably be performed in connection with traffic abatement measures.

    PMID: 15000184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [The effects of acoustic overstimulation].
    Related Articles

    [The effects of acoustic overstimulation].

    Ther Umsch. 2004 Jan;61(1):21-9

    Authors: Häusler R

    Abstract
    Basic aspects of acoustic trauma are presented. Exposure to loud noise leads to an acoustic traumatization with a temporary threshold shift initially and, with increasing exposure, intensity and duration, a permanent hearing loss. Impulse sound such as hammer blows on metal, gun shots and other detonations reaching peak levels of 160 to 180 dB is particularly hazardous to the inner ear. Playing loud musical instruments such as trumpets or percussion may also lead to hearing damage. Less dangerous than often believed is listening to electronically amplified music with walkmen, at discos or rock concerts. The reason is that, while the sound level is quite high, the particularly dangerous sound peaks are absent, as loudspeakers usually have an output limit of 110-120 dB. Traffic noise (cars, trains, air planes) is usually not threatening to the ear, but it may represent a considerable subjective annoyance and a stress factor leading to psychosomatic disturbances (neurovegetative symptoms, sleeping disorders). An effective treatment for the acoustic trauma is still missing. The systematic and consequent prophylaxis either with individual ear protectors (plugs or ear muffs) or by reducing the noise level at the source by means of isolation, encapsulation, or by using motors that are less noisy remains very important. Increasing awareness of acoustic pollution and preventive means have led to a reduction in the incidence of the acoustic trauma in the last decades.

    PMID: 14997996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Nonoccupational noise: exposures associated with routine activities.
    Related Articles

    Nonoccupational noise: exposures associated with routine activities.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2004 Jan;115(1):237-45

    Authors: Neitzel R, Seixas N, Olson J, Daniell W, Goldman B

    Abstract
    Efforts to characterize nonoccupational noise exposures have focused primarily on infrequent, episodic events. Few studies have assessed noise levels resulting from routine daily activities. In the current study, 112 construction workers wore datalogging noise dosimeters and simultaneously completed activity logs during two phases of data collection. The 81 subjects monitored in phase 1 received logs listing numerous preselected occupational and nonoccupational activities, while the 31 subjects monitored in phase 2 used free-field logs and reported nonoccupational activities in greater detail. Nearly all of the 221,439 1-min intervals of nonoccupational L(eq) level and activity reporting were below 70 dBA; only a small percentage exceeded 80 dBA. The primary contributor to nonoccupational noise exposure was traveling in a car or bus, while time at home contributed the least. One hundred seventy 24-h L(eq) levels were computed from the 1-min noise level data. The percentage of phase 2 workday L(eq(24)) levels which exceeded 80 dBA was higher than that of the nonworkday levels. The mean L(eq(24)) level of phase 2 workdays was higher than that of nonworkdays, and the difference was statistically significant. Routine nonoccupational noise exposures contributed much less to total noise dose than occupational exposures in the subjects evaluated.

    PMID: 14759016 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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