Studien 2011

pubmed: studien aus 2011

NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=((((Noise, Transportation[MeSH Terms]) OR transportation noise[MeSH Terms]) OR aircraft noise[Title]) AND Humans[MeSH Terms]) AND ("2011/01/01"[PDAT] : "2011/12/31"[PDAT])
  • Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among traffic police personnel of Kathmandu Metropolitan City.
    Related Articles

    Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among traffic police personnel of Kathmandu Metropolitan City.

    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2011 Oct-Dec;9(36):274-8

    Authors: Shrestha I, Shrestha BL, Pokharel M, Amatya RC, Karki DR

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major preventable occupational health hazard.
    OBJECTIVE: To measure permanent threshold shift in traffic police personnel due to noise exposure and to examine whether it was associated with duration of noise exposure, years of work and risk factors.
    METHODS: Cross sectional, descriptive study conducted at Dhulikhel hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital in 110 responding traffic police personnel. Detailed history and clinical examination of ear, impedence audiometry and pure tone audiometry was performed.
    RESULTS: Mean age group was 29.82 years; 82(74.5%) were males and 28 (25.5%) were females. Mean duration of service is 11.86 years. Twenty six (23.6%) had tinnitus and 39(35.5%) had blocked sensation in ear. Sixty five (59.1%) worked between 10- 19 years. Alcohol and smoking shows positive impact on NIHL (p value =0.00). Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were 4.481 (1.925-10.432) and 6.578 (2.306- 18.764) respectively. Among 73(66.4%) noise induced hearing loss positive cases, bilateral involvement was seen in 45 (40.9%) and unilateral in 28(25.4 %) cases. Among unilateral cases most were left sided. Hearing threshold at 4 kHz increased according to age and duration of service.
    CONCLUSION: Traffic police personnel are in constant risk of noise induced hearing loss. Screening for hearing loss is recommended for people exposed to noise.

    PMID: 22710537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Perception of risk arising from atmospheric emissions from an open solid-waste disposal site].
    Related Articles

    [Perception of risk arising from atmospheric emissions from an open solid-waste disposal site].

    Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2011 Dec;13(6):930-41

    Authors: Valencia JA, Espinosa A, Parra A, Peña MR

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: Identifying social factors determining the perception of risk in a population exposed to atmospheric emissions from a solid waste final disposal site in the city of Cali, Colombia (Basurero de Navarro--BN).
    METHODS: This was a quantitative study; a stratified sample of 199 people were surveyed, distributed according to socio-economic level.
    RESULTS: The main problem for 73% of the respondents was insecurity and 50% considered this to be air pollution. Respondents described pollution manifesting itself as pain in the throat and burning eyes; 64% who had lived longer in the sector believed that pollution was more concentrated in other parts of the city and did not affect their sector. 83.4% believed that the BN produced pollution and associated it with the air (42%). 48% rated the pollution caused by the BN as being severe and 29% as being very serious.
    DISCUSSION: Risk perception was associated with the length of residence in the sector and individuals' age. Many gaps in information and the need to implement outreach programmes were highlighted. It is important that the community become better informed about the risks of pollution caused by the BN and what mitigation measures can be taken.

    PMID: 22634995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A comparison between exposure-response relationships for wind turbine annoyance and annoyance due to other noise sources.
    Related Articles

    A comparison between exposure-response relationships for wind turbine annoyance and annoyance due to other noise sources.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Dec;130(6):3746-53

    Authors: Janssen SA, Vos H, Eisses AR, Pedersen E

    Abstract
    Surveys have shown that noise from wind turbines is perceived as annoying by a proportion of residents living in their vicinity, apparently at much lower noise levels than those inducing annoyance due to other environmental sources. The aim of the present study was to derive the exposure-response relationship between wind turbine noise exposure in L(den) and the expected percentage annoyed residents and to compare it to previously established relationships for industrial noise and transportation noise. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. On the basis of available data from two surveys in Sweden (N=341, N=754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N=725), a relationship was derived for annoyance indoors and for annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In comparison to other sources of environmental noise, annoyance due to wind turbine noise was found at relatively low noise exposure levels. Furthermore, annoyance was lower among residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines and higher among residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources.

    PMID: 22225031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Risk of hypertension related to road traffic noise among reproductive-age women.
    Related Articles

    Risk of hypertension related to road traffic noise among reproductive-age women.

    Noise Health. 2011 Nov-Dec;13(55):371-7

    Authors: Bendokiene I, Grazuleviciene R, Dedele A

    Abstract
    Chronic noise exposure is associated with adverse pathophysiological effects, which may contribute to the progression of hypertension. However, evidence supporting its effect on women is still inconsistent. The aim of the study was to examine the hypertension risk related to road traffic noise in residential settings in an urban community amongst reproductive-aged women. Cross-sectional study data including 3,121 pregnant women, 20-45 years old, and a geographic information system (GIS) to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr) for every subject at the current residential address were used. Effects on physician-diagnosed hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustments for age, social status, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, ethnic group, parity, body mass index, chronic disease, and exposure duration. The prevalence of hypertension amongst women aged 20-45 years in the lowest exposure category was 13.1% in comparison to 13.6% and 18.1% amongst those exposed to the medium and the highest exposure category, respectively. After making adjustments for the selected variables, no exposure effects [Odds ratio (OR) ≈ 1.0] were noted in the medium exposure category [51-60 dB(A)]. However, a slight increase was noted in the highest exposure category [≥61 dB(A)), OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.86-2.15]. The effect was more pronounced amongst women aged 30-45 years and a positive exposure-response relation was indicated for hypertension: An effect was seen at noise levels 51-60 dB(A) (OR = 1.03; 95% CI 0.72-1.49) and at >61 dB(A) (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.01-3.72). The present study shows some evidence for an association between the residential road traffic noise and hypertension amongst reproductive-aged women, and an exposure-response relationship.

    PMID: 22122952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Exposures to transit and other sources of noise among New York City residents.
    Related Articles

    Exposures to transit and other sources of noise among New York City residents.

    Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Jan 3;46(1):500-8

    Authors: Neitzel RL, Gershon RR, McAlexander TP, Magda LA, Pearson JM

    Abstract
    To evaluate the contributions of common noise sources to total annual noise exposures among urban residents and workers, we estimated exposures associated with five common sources (use of mass transit, occupational and nonoccupational activities, MP3 player and stereo use, and time at home and doing other miscellaneous activities) among a sample of over 4500 individuals in New York City (NYC). We then evaluated the contributions of each source to total noise exposure and also compared our estimated exposures to the recommended 70 dBA annual exposure limit. We found that one in ten transit users had noise exposures in excess of the recommended exposure limit from their transit use alone. When we estimated total annual exposures, 90% of NYC transit users and 87% of nonusers exceeded the recommended limit. MP3 player and stereo use, which represented a small fraction of the total annual hours for each subject on average, was the primary source of exposure among the majority of urban dwellers we evaluated. Our results suggest that the vast majority of urban mass transit riders may be at risk of permanent, irreversible noise-induced hearing loss and that, for many individuals, this risk is driven primarily by exposures other than occupational noise.

    PMID: 22088203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study.
    Related Articles

    Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study.

    Environ Health. 2011;10:92

    Authors: Sørensen M, Hvidberg M, Hoffmann B, Andersen ZJ, Nordsborg RB, Lillelund KG, Jakobsen J, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou-Nielsen O

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to transport noise increases the risk for cardiovascular disorders. The effect of transport noise on blood pressure and hypertension is uncertain.
    METHODS: In 1993-1997, 57,053 participants aged 50-64 year were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. At enrollment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured. Incident hypertension during a mean follow-up of 5.3 years was assessed by questionnaire. Residential long-term road traffic noise (Lden) was estimated for 1- and 5-year periods preceding enrollment and preceding diagnosis of hypertension. Residential exposure to railway noise was estimated at enrollment. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations between road traffic and railway noise and blood pressure at enrollment with linear regression, adjusting for long-term air pollution, meteorology and potential lifestyle confounders (N = 44,083). Incident self-reported hypertension was analyzed with Cox regression, adjusting for long-term air pollution and potential lifestyle confounders.
    RESULTS: We found a 0.26 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (95% confidence intervals (CI): -0.11; 0.63) per 10 dB(A) increase in 1-year mean road traffic noise levels, with stronger associations in men (0.59 mm Hg (CI: 0.13; 1.05) per 10 dB(A)) and older participants (0.65 mm Hg (0.08; 1.22) per 10 dB(A)). Road traffic noise was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or hypertension. Exposure to railway noise above 60 dB was associated with 8% higher risk for hypertension (95% CI: -2%; 19%, P = 0.11).
    CONCLUSIONS: While exposure to road traffic noise was associated with systolic blood pressure in subgroups, we were not able to identify associations with hypertension.

    PMID: 22034939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Enhanced slow wave sleep and improved sleep maintenance after gaboxadol administration during seven nights of exposure to a traffic noise model of transient insomnia.
    Related Articles

    Enhanced slow wave sleep and improved sleep maintenance after gaboxadol administration during seven nights of exposure to a traffic noise model of transient insomnia.

    J Psychopharmacol. 2012 Aug;26(8):1096-107

    Authors: Dijk DJ, Stanley N, Lundahl J, Groeger JA, Legters A, Trap Huusom AK, Deacon S

    Abstract
    Slow wave sleep (SWS) has been reported to correlate with sleep maintenance, but whether pharmacological enhancement of SWS also leads to improved sleep maintenance is not known. Here we evaluate the time-course of the effects of gaboxadol, an extra-synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, on SWS, sleep maintenance, and other sleep measures in a traffic noise model of transient insomnia. After a placebo run-in, 101 healthy subjects (20-78 y) were randomized to gaboxadol (n = 50; 15 mg in subjects <65 y and 10 mg in subjects ≥65 y) or placebo (n = 51) for 7 nights (N1-N7). The model caused some disruption of sleep initiation and maintenance, with greatest effects on N1. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol increased SWS and slow wave activity throughout N1 to N7 (p < 0.05). Gaboxadol reduced latency to persistent sleep overall (N1-N7) by 4.5 min and on N1 by 11 min (both p < 0.05). Gaboxadol increased total sleep time (TST) overall by 16 min (p < 0.001) and on N1 by 38 min (p < 0.0001). Under gaboxadol, wakefulness after sleep onset was reduced by 11 min overall (p < 0.01) and by 29 min on N1 (p < 0.0001), and poly-somnographic awakenings were reduced on N1 (p < 0.05). Gaboxadol reduced self-reported sleep onset latency overall and on N1 (both p < 0.05) and increased self-reported TST overall (p < 0.05) and on N1 (p < 0.01). Subjective sleep quality improved overall (p < 0.01) and on N1 (p < 0.0001). Increases in SWS correlated with objective and subjective measures of sleep maintenance and subjective sleep quality under placebo and gaboxadol (p < 0.05). Gaboxadol enhanced SWS and reduced the disruptive effects of noise on sleep initiation and maintenance.

    PMID: 22002961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Urban road traffic noise and annoyance: the effect of a quiet façade.
    Related Articles

    Urban road traffic noise and annoyance: the effect of a quiet façade.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Oct;130(4):1936-42

    Authors: de Kluizenaar Y, Salomons EM, Janssen SA, van Lenthe FJ, Vos H, Zhou H, Miedema HM, Mackenbach JP

    Abstract
    Road traffic noise in urban areas is a major source of annoyance. A quiet façade has been hypothesized to beneficially affect annoyance. However, only a limited number of studies investigated this hypothesis, and further quantification is needed. This study investigates the effect of a relatively quiet façade on the annoyance response. Logistic regression was performed in a large population based study (GLOBE, N~18,000), to study the association between road traffic noise exposure at the most exposed dwelling façade (L(den)) and annoyance in: (1) The subgroup with a relatively quiet façade (large difference in road traffic noise level between most and least exposed façade (Q>10 dB); (2) the subgroup without a relatively quiet façade (Q<10 dB). Questionnaire data were linked to individual exposure assessment based on detailed spatial data (GIS) and standard modeling techniques. Annoyance was less likely (OR(Q) (>10)<OR(Q) (<10)) in the subgroup with relatively quiet façade compared to the subgroup without relatively quiet façade. The difference in response between groups seemed to increase with increasing Q and L(den). Results indicate that residents may benefit from a quiet façade to the dwelling.

    PMID: 21973348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Ambient noise in large rivers (L).
    Related Articles

    Ambient noise in large rivers (L).

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Oct;130(4):1787-91

    Authors: Vračar MS, Mijić M

    Abstract
    This paper presents the results of hydroacoustic noise research in three large European rivers: the Danube, the Sava, and the Tisa. Noise in these rivers was observed during a period of ten years, which includes all annual variation in hydrological and meteorological conditions (flow rate, speed of flow, wind speed, etc.). Noise spectra are characterized by wide maximums at frequencies between 20 and 30 Hz, and relatively constant slope toward higher frequencies. Spectral level of noise changes in time in relatively wide limits. At low frequencies, below 100 Hz, the dynamics of noise level is correlated with the dynamics of water flow and speed. At higher frequencies, noise spectra are mostly influenced by human activities on river and on riverbanks. The influence of wind on noise in rivers is complex due to the annual variation of river surface. The influence of wind is less pronounced than in oceans, seas, and lakes.

    PMID: 21973331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.
    Related Articles

    Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    J Environ Monit. 2011 Nov;13(11):3237-45

    Authors: Birk M, Ivina O, von Klot S, Babisch W, Heinrich J

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration.
    METHODS: parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function.
    RESULTS: the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50).
    CONCLUSIONS: road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

    PMID: 21952421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Problems of railway noise-a case study.
    Related Articles

    Problems of railway noise-a case study.

    Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2011;17(3):309-25

    Authors: Szwarc M, Kostek B, Kotus J, Szczodrak M, Czyżewski A

    Abstract
    Under Directive 2002/49/EC relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise, all European countries are obliged to model their environmental noise levels in heavily populated areas. Some countries have their own national method, to predict noise but most have not created one yet. The recommendation for countries that do not have their own model is to use an interim method. The Dutch SRM II scheme is suggested for railways. In addition to the Dutch model, this paper describes and discusses 3 other national methods. Moreover, discrepancies between the HARMONOISE and IMAGINE projects are analysed. The results of rail traffic noise measurements are compared with national methods.

    PMID: 21939603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Transportation noise and blood pressure in a population-based sample of adults.
    Related Articles

    Transportation noise and blood pressure in a population-based sample of adults.

    Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jan;120(1):50-5

    Authors: Dratva J, Phuleria HC, Foraster M, Gaspoz JM, Keidel D, Künzli N, Liu LJ, Pons M, Zemp E, Gerbase MW, Schindler C

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: There is some evidence for an association between traffic noise and ischemic heart disease; however, associations with blood pressure have been inconsistent, and little is known about health effects of railway noise.
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of railway and traffic noise exposure on blood pressure; a secondary aim was to address potentially susceptible subpopulations.
    METHODS: We performed adjusted linear regression analyses using data from 6,450 participants of the second survey of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA 2) to estimate the associations of daytime and nighttime railway and traffic noise (A-weighted decibels) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; millimeters of mercury). Noise data were provided by the Federal Office for the Environment. Stratified analyses by self-reported hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes were performed.
    RESULTS: Mean noise exposure during the day and night was 51 dB(A) and 39 dB(A) for traffic noise, respectively, and 19 dB(A) and 17 dB(A) for railway noise. Adjusted regression models yielded significant effect estimates for a 10 dB(A) increase in railway noise during the night [SBP β = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 1.46; DBP β = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.81] and day (SBP β = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.07, 1.13). Additional adjustment for nitrogen dioxide left effect estimates almost unchanged. Stronger associations were estimated for participants with chronic disease. Significant associations with traffic noise were seen only among participants with diabetes.
    CONCLUSION: We found evidence of an adverse effect of railway noise on blood pressure in this cohort population. Traffic noise was associated with higher blood pressure only in diabetics, possibly due to low exposure levels. The study results imply more severe health effects by transportation noise in vulnerable populations, such as adults with hypertension, diabetes, or CVD.

    PMID: 21885382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.
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    A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Aug;130(2):791-806

    Authors: Fidell S, Mestre V, Schomer P, Berry B, Gjestland T, Vallet M, Reid T

    Abstract
    Numerous relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise-induced annoyance have been inferred by curve-fitting methods. The present paper develops a different approach. It derives a systematic relationship by applying an a priori, first-principles model to the findings of forty three studies of the annoyance of aviation noise. The rate of change of annoyance with day-night average sound level (DNL) due to aircraft noise exposure was found to closely resemble the rate of change of loudness with sound level. The agreement of model predictions with the findings of recent curve-fitting exercises (cf. Miedma and Vos, 1998) is noteworthy, considering that other analyses have relied on different analytic methods and disparate data sets. Even though annoyance prevalence rates within individual communities consistently grow in proportion to duration-adjusted loudness, variability in annoyance prevalence rates across communities remains great. The present analyses demonstrate that 1) community-specific differences in annoyance prevalence rates can be plausibly attributed to the joint effect of acoustic and non-DNL related factors and (2) a simple model can account for the aggregate influences of non-DNL related factors on annoyance prevalence rates in different communities in terms of a single parameter expressed in DNL units-a "community tolerance level."

    PMID: 21877795 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Problem of noise as an ecologic factor on urban territories].
    Related Articles

    [Problem of noise as an ecologic factor on urban territories].

    Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2011;(6):17-20

    Authors: Takeev TA, Abitaev DS, Seksenova LSh, Mukhametdzhanova ZT, Atshabarova SSh, Rakhmetullaev BB, Nazar DK

    Abstract
    The authors evaluated levels of transport noise in intensive automobile traffic of Ust-Kamenogorsk. Noise on traffic area appeared to spread not only onto the area nearing the road, but deeply into housing blocks. Thus, the area exposed to the most severe noise covers blocks and districts situated along highways of citywide importance. Reasons of high noise level are: blocks and districts are not isolated from noise passing from highways, greenery planting is insufficient, most territories intended for recreation and children playgrounds are used for traffic.

    PMID: 21846045 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Conceptual model for assessment and management of human risk from transport pollution].
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    [Conceptual model for assessment and management of human risk from transport pollution].

    Gig Sanit. 2011 May-Jun;(3):20-5

    Authors: Fridman KB, Lim TE, Shustalov SN

    Abstract
    The existing methodology for human health risk assessment allows one to appreciably study cause-and-effect relationships between environmental factors and human health. Risk management is a logic continuation of the assessment of human health risk and it is aimed at substantiating the choice of decisions that are best in a specific situation to eliminate or minimize it, to make follow-up monitoring of exposures and a risk, to evaluate the efficiency of health-improving measures and to correct the latter. Risk management involves technical, technological, organizational, social, legal, economic, normative, political, and other decisions made on the conclusions and estimates obtained when characterizing the risk.

    PMID: 21842731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Long-term urban particulate air pollution, traffic noise, and arterial blood pressure.
    Related Articles

    Long-term urban particulate air pollution, traffic noise, and arterial blood pressure.

    Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Dec;119(12):1706-11

    Authors: Fuks K, Moebus S, Hertel S, Viehmann A, Nonnemacher M, Dragano N, Möhlenkamp S, Jakobs H, Kessler C, Erbel R, Hoffmann B, Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown an association of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) with transient increases in blood pressure (BP), but it is unclear whether long-term exposure has an effect on arterial BP and hypertension.
    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of residential long-term PM exposure with arterial BP and hypertension, taking short-term variations of PM and long-term road traffic noise exposure into account.
    METHODS: We used baseline data (2000-2003) on 4,291 participants, 45-75 years of age, from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based prospective cohort in Germany. Urban background exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ≤ 10 μm (PM(10)) was assessed with a dispersion and chemistry transport model. We used generalized additive models, adjusting for short-term PM, meteorology, traffic proximity, and individual risk factors.
    RESULTS: An interquartile increase in PM2.5 (2.4 μg/m(3)) was associated with estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic BP of 1.4 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5, 2.3] and 0.9 mmHg (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4), respectively. The observed relationship was independent of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and robust to the inclusion of many potential confounders. Residential proximity to high traffic and traffic noise exposure showed a tendency toward higher BP and an elevated prevalence of hypertension.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found an association of long-term exposure to PM with increased arterial BP in a population-based sample. This finding supports our hypothesis that long-term PM exposure may promote atherosclerosis, with air-pollution-induced increases in BP being one possible biological pathway.

    PMID: 21827977 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Urban daily life routines and human exposure to environmental discomfort.
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    Urban daily life routines and human exposure to environmental discomfort.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2012 Jul;184(7):4575-90

    Authors: Schnell I, Potchter O, Yaakov Y, Epstein Y, Brener S, Hermesh H

    Abstract
    This study suggests a shift in focus from studying environmental discomfort in urban strategic stations, from which average results for the city or specific results for selected sites are deduced, and from measuring environmental conditions in fixed monitoring stations to a study in which we monitor, with mobile portable sensors, the exposure of people to environmental sources of discomfort while performing their daily life activities. Significant variations in sense of discomfort were measured in this study, and almost half of this variability was found to be explained while four independent environmental variables were considered: air quality (concentrations of CO), noise level, climatic variables (thermal load), and social loads. The study conducted in the city of Tel Aviv, which suffers from hot, humid summers and cool winters, and noise levels that reach the average levels of 85 dB, and relatively lower levels of exposure to the other potential stressors. These levels of combined exposures result in moderate levels of discomfort for young, healthy people once they experience the more stressing environments in the city. It is shown also that noise from other people is the most salient source of discomfort in Tel Aviv. Levels of discomfort accumulate during the working hours, either due to the impact of social loads or noise, but the subjects showed good coping abilities that enabled them to recover in late afternoons. It seems that thermal load does not have immediate impact, but rather cumulative ones, mainly during transitional seasons when subjects are less adaptive to extreme changes in weather.

    PMID: 21826420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Evaluation of speech transmission in open public spaces affected by combined noises.
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    Evaluation of speech transmission in open public spaces affected by combined noises.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Jul;130(1):219-27

    Authors: Lee PJ, Jeon JY

    Abstract
    In the present study, the effects of interference from combined noises on speech transmission were investigated in a simulated open public space. Sound fields for dominant noises were predicted using a typical urban square model surrounded by buildings. Then road traffic noise and two types of construction noises, corresponding to stationary and impulsive noises, were selected as background noises. Listening tests were performed on a group of adults, and the quality of speech transmission was evaluated using listening difficulty as well as intelligibility scores. During the listening tests, two factors that affect speech transmission performance were considered: (1) temporal characteristics of construction noise (stationary or impulsive) and (2) the levels of the construction and road traffic noises. The results indicated that word intelligibility scores and listening difficulty ratings were affected by the temporal characteristics of construction noise due to fluctuations in the background noise level. It was also observed that listening difficulty is unable to describe the speech transmission in noisy open public spaces showing larger variation than did word intelligibility scores.

    PMID: 21786892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Influence of impression of vehicle styling on loudness of acceleration sounds in cabin.
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    Influence of impression of vehicle styling on loudness of acceleration sounds in cabin.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Jul;130(1):EL19-24

    Authors: Yoshida J, Igata T

    Abstract
    The influence of participants' impressions of vehicle styling on the loudness of acceleration sounds was investigated. A series of images of luxury or sporty vehicles was presented to the participants as acceleration sounds were being replayed. The results indicated that participants who were frequent drivers felt that the sound associated with luxury vehicles was louder than that associated with sporty vehicles. However, participants who rarely drove perceived almost no difference between the loudness of the two vehicles types. Thus, the loudness was shown to depend on both the participants' impression of the vehicle and their driving frequency.

    PMID: 21786863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Spatial analysis of urban form and pedestrian exposure to traffic noise.
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    Spatial analysis of urban form and pedestrian exposure to traffic noise.

    Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Jun;8(6):1977-90

    Authors: Sheng N, Tang UW

    Abstract
    In the Macao Peninsula, the high population density (49,763 inhabitants/km2) and the lack of control over the number of vehicles (460 vehicles/km) have led to an increase in urban pollution. To provide useful information to local government and urban planners, this paper investigates the spatial distribution of traffic noise in the Macao Peninsula. The interactions among urban form, traffic flow and traffic noise are addressed. Considering the spatial nature of urban geometry and traffic, a high-resolution GIS-based traffic noise model system is applied. Results indicate that the Macao Peninsula has fallen into a situation of serious traffic noise pollution. About 60% of traffic noise levels along the major pedestrian sidewalks in the evening peak hour exceed the National Standard of 70 dB(A) in China. In particular, about 21% of traffic noise levels along the pedestrian sidewalks are above the National Standard by 5 dB(A). Noticeably, the high pedestrian exposure to traffic noise in the historical urban area reduces the comfort of tourists walking in the historic centre and is ruining the reputation of the area as a World Cultural Heritage site.

    PMID: 21776213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.
    Related Articles

    Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.

    Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Jun;8(6):1847-64

    Authors: Salomons EM, Janssen SA

    Abstract
    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels.

    PMID: 21776205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road traffic noise, annoyance and community health survey - a case study for an Indian city.
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    Road traffic noise, annoyance and community health survey - a case study for an Indian city.

    Noise Health. 2011 Jul-Aug;13(53):272-6

    Authors: Agarwal S, Swami BL

    Abstract
    The present study is aimed to investigate the impact of noise pollution on residents/community residing near roadside. The degree of annoyance was assessed by means of a questionnaire. It was found that among all noise-generating sources, road traffic was the major source of noise followed by factory/machines. A health survey reported about 52% of population was suffering by frequent irritation. 46% respondent felt hypertension, and 48.6% observed loss of sleep due to noise pollution. Common noise descriptors were also recorded at all the selected sites. It was found that the Leq values were higher (range 73-86) compared to the permissible values (65 dBA) prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. Further, regression equations were developed between various noise indices and percentage of population highly annoyed, and a strong correlation was also observed.

    PMID: 21768730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest.
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    Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest.

    Rev Biol Trop. 2011 Jun;59(2):969-80

    Authors: Arévalo JE, Newhard K

    Abstract
    The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12 m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240 net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation, these results have conservation as well as management implications. A decrease in bird species richness and bird abundance due to intrusive road noise could negatively affect the use of trails by visitors. Alternatives for noise attenuation in the affected forest area include the enforcement of speed limits and the planting of live barriers.

    PMID: 21717861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Modeling of road traffic noise and estimated human exposure in Fulton County, Georgia, USA.
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    Modeling of road traffic noise and estimated human exposure in Fulton County, Georgia, USA.

    Environ Int. 2011 Nov;37(8):1336-41

    Authors: Seong JC, Park TH, Ko JH, Chang SI, Kim M, Holt JB, Mehdi MR

    Abstract
    Environmental noise is a major source of public complaints. Noise in the community causes physical and socio-economic effects and has been shown to be related to adverse health impacts. Noise, however, has not been actively researched in the United States compared with the European Union countries in recent years. In this research, we aimed at modeling road traffic noise and analyzing human exposure in Fulton County, Georgia, United States. We modeled road traffic noise levels using the United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model implemented in SoundPLAN®. After analyzing noise levels with raster, vector and façade maps, we estimated human exposure to high noise levels. Accurate digital elevation models and building heights were derived from Light Detection And Ranging survey datasets and building footprint boundaries. Traffic datasets were collected from the Georgia Department of Transportation and the Atlanta Regional Commission. Noise level simulation was performed with 62 computers in a distributed computing environment. Finally, the noise-exposed population was calculated using geographic information system techniques. Results show that 48% of the total county population [N=870,166 residents] is potentially exposed to 55 dB(A) or higher noise levels during daytime. About 9% of the population is potentially exposed to 67 dB(A) or higher noises. At nighttime, 32% of the population is expected to be exposed to noise levels higher than 50 dB(A). This research shows that large-scale traffic noise estimation is possible with the help of various organizations. We believe that this research is a significant stepping stone for analyzing community health associated with noise exposures in the United States.

    PMID: 21704376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A field study of effects of road traffic and railway noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters.
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    A field study of effects of road traffic and railway noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Jun;129(6):3716-26

    Authors: Aasvang GM, Øverland B, Ursin R, Moum T

    Abstract
    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the effect of noise from railway and road traffic on sleep in subjects habitually exposed to nocturnal noise. Forty young and middle aged healthy subjects were studied with polysomnography (PSG) during two consecutive nights in their own bedroom. Noise measurements and recordings were conducted concurrently outside of the bedroom façade as well as inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (L(p,A,eq,night), L(p,A,Fmax,night), and L(AF5,night)) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. The group exposed to railway noise had significantly less Rapid eye movement, (REM) sleep than the group exposed to road traffic noise. A significant association was found between the maximum level (L(p,A,Fmax,night)) of railway noise and time spent in REM sleep. REM sleep was significantly shorter in the group exposed to at least a single railway noise event above 50 dB inside the bedroom. These results, obtained in an ecological valid setting, support previous laboratory findings that railway noise has a stronger impact than road traffic noise on physiological parameters during sleep, and that the maximum noise level is an important predictor of noise effects on sleep assessed by PSG, at least for railway noise.

    PMID: 21682396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.
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    Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 May;129(5):3011-9

    Authors: Kochan K, Sachau D, Breitbach H

    Abstract
    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft.

    PMID: 21568404 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Examining the use of a time-varying loudness algorithm for quantifying characteristics of nonlinearly propagated noise (L).
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    Examining the use of a time-varying loudness algorithm for quantifying characteristics of nonlinearly propagated noise (L).

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 May;129(5):2753-6

    Authors: Swift SH, Gee KL

    Abstract
    A previous letter by Gee et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, EL1-EL7 (2007)] revealed likely shortcomings in using common, stationary (long-term) spectrum-based measures to quantify the perception of nonlinearly propagated noise. Here, the Glasberg and Moore [J. Audio Eng. Soc. 50, 331-342 (2002)] algorithm for time-varying loudness is investigated. Their short-term loudness, when applied to a shock-containing broadband signal and a phase-randomized signal with equivalent long-term spectrum, does not show a significant difference in loudness between the signals. Further analysis and discussion focus on the possible utility of the instantaneous loudness and the need for additional investigation in this area.

    PMID: 21568378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The influence of traffic noise on appreciation of the living quality of a neighborhood.
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    The influence of traffic noise on appreciation of the living quality of a neighborhood.

    Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Mar;8(3):777-98

    Authors: Botteldooren D, Dekoninck L, Gillis D

    Abstract
    Traffic influences the quality of life in a neighborhood in many different ways. Today, in many patsy of the world the benefits of accessibility are taken for granted and traffic is perceived as having a negative impact on satisfaction with the neighborhood. Negative health effects are observed in a number of studies and these stimulate the negative feelings in the exposed population. The noise produced by traffic is one of the most important contributors to the appreciation of the quality of life. Thus, it is useful to define a number of indicators that allow monitoring the current impact of noise on the quality of life and predicting the effect of future developments. This work investigates and compares a set of indicators related to exposure at home and exposure during trips around the house. The latter require detailed modeling of the population's trip behavior. The validity of the indicators is checked by their ability to predict the outcome of a social survey and by outlining potential causal paths between them and the outcome variables considered: general satisfaction with the quality of life in the neighborhood, noise annoyance at home, and reported traffic density in the area.

    PMID: 21556178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Auscultation in flight: comparison of conventional and electronic stethoscopes.
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    Auscultation in flight: comparison of conventional and electronic stethoscopes.

    Air Med J. 2011 May-Jun;30(3):158-60

    Authors: Tourtier JP, Libert N, Clapson P, Tazarourte K, Borne M, Grasser L, Debien B, Auroy Y

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: The ability to auscultate during air medical transport is compromised by high ambient-noise levels. The aim of this study was to assess the capabilities of a traditional and an electronic stethoscope (which is expected to amplify sounds and reduce ambient noise) to assess heart and breath sounds during medical transport in a Boeing C135.
    METHODS: We tested one model of a traditional stethoscope (3MTM Littmann Cardiology IIITM) and one model of an electronic stethoscope (3MTM Littmann Stethoscope Model 3000). We studied heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard a medically configured C135. For each device, the quality of auscultation was described using a visual rating scale (ranging from 0 to 100 mm, 0 corresponding to "I hear nothing," 100 to "I hear perfectly"). Comparisons were accomplished using a t-test for paired values.
    RESULTS: A total of 36 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the visual rating scale was 53 ± 24 and 85 ± 11 mm, respectively, for the traditional and electronic stethoscope (paired t-test: P = .0024). For lung sounds, quality of auscultation was estimated at 27 ± 17 mm for traditional stethoscope and 68 ± 13 for electronic stethoscope (paired t-test: P = .0003). The electronic stethoscope was considered to be better than the standard model for hearing heart and lung sounds.
    CONCLUSION: Flight practitioners involved in air medical evacuation in the C135 aircraft are better able to practice auscultation with this electronic stethoscope than with a traditional one.

    PMID: 21549289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Relationship between noise annoyance from road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis.
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    Relationship between noise annoyance from road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):251-9

    Authors: Ndrepepa A, Twardella D

    Abstract
    Road traffic noise is an important source of noise annoyance in the community. We performed a meta-analysis to assess whether there is an association between noise annoyance from road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases (arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease) in adult population. The meta-analysis included studies that: a. had noise annoyance as exposure, quantified either as "annoyed versus non-annoyed" or with various scales collected by standardized questionnaires; b. arterial hypertension or ischemic heart disease as outcome; c. had included only adult population (age >18 years); d. the studies had to have as effect size odds ratios or relative risk. From the individual studies those odds ratios were selected for meta-analysis which compared most distant categories. Eight studies that fulfilled criteria published between 1992 and 2006 were included in the meta-analysis: 6 studies had a cross-sectional design, 1 study had a case-control-design and 1 study had a cohort design. Increased annoyance was significantly associated with arterial hypertension (pooled risk estimate = 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.29) while the association with ischemic heart disease did not reach statistical significance (pooled risk estimate = 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.14). No publication bias was evidenced. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated the existence of a positive and significant association between noise annoyance from road traffic and the risk of arterial hypertension and a positive yet insignificant association between noise annoyance and the risk of ischemic heart disease.

    PMID: 21537109 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Austria.
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    Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Austria.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):234-50

    Authors: Lercher P, Botteldooren D, Widmann U, Uhrner U, Kammeringer E

    Abstract
    Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

    PMID: 21537108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in the United Kingdom.
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    Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in the United Kingdom.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):229-33

    Authors: Stansfeld S, Crombie R

    Abstract
    Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK), noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31), which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA) study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night ) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29). Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children's cognition and health (RANCH) study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the effects of day and night time exposure, and exposure modifying factors.

    PMID: 21537107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in The Netherlands.
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    Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in The Netherlands.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):221-8

    Authors: Kempen Ev

    Abstract
    The impact of environmental noise on public health, in The Netherlands, is limited: Less than 1% of the myocardial infarction cases per year are attributable to long-term exposure to road traffic noise. Furthermore, although the Dutch noise policy is not directed to prevent cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure, health does play a role in Dutch noise policy. These are the main conclusions of a systematic review of Dutch observational studies, investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Since 1970, 14 Dutch studies were published investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Within these studies a large variety of outcomes were investigated, ranging from blood pressure changes to cardiovascular mortality. The results of the studies were not consistent and only weak associations were found.

    PMID: 21537106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Serbia.
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    Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Serbia.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):217-20

    Authors: Belojevic G, Paunovic K, Jakovljevic B, Stojanov V, Ilic J, Slepcevic V, Saric-Tanaskovic M

    Abstract
    Research on the cardiovascular effects of noise in Serbia started in the year 2002, including experimental studies on humans and epidemiological studies on the adult and children population of Belgrade and Pancevo. Experimental exposure to noise [L eq = 89 dB (A)] had a hypodynamic effect, significantly lowering the cardiac index, cardiac work, and pump performance (P < 0.01). The vasoconstrictive effect of noise was shown through the significant elevation of after-load (P < 0.01). In a cross-sectional population study that was carried out on 2874 residents [1243 males and 1631 females] in Pancevo City, a significant odds ratio (adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking habits) was found for self-reported hypertension (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0 - 2.4, P < 0.01) in men with a high level of noise annoyance compared to those with a low level of noise annoyance. In another study on 2503 residents (995 men and 1508 women) residents of Belgrade, the proportions of men with hypertension in the noisy [(L night , 8h > 45 dB (A)] and quiet areas [(L night , 8h ≤ 45 dB (A)] were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for hypertension of the exposed group was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.03 - 2.42, P = 0.038), where men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. Associations between road traffic noise and blood pressure were also investigated in 328 preschool children in Belgrade. The systolic blood pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy residences and kindergartens, compared to children from both quiet environments (97.30 ± 8.15 and 92.33 ± 8.64 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01). As a continuation of the study on preschool children, investigations were also carried out on 856 school children, aged between seven and eleven years, in Belgrade. It was found that systolic pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy schools and quiet residences, compared to children from both quiet environments (102.1 ± 9,3 and 100.4 ± 10.4 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01).

    PMID: 21537105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Sweden.
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    Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Sweden.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):212-6

    Authors: Bluhm G, Eriksson C

    Abstract
    In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A) noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR) of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19) per 5 dB(A) noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.

    PMID: 21537104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Germany.
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    Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Germany.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):205-11

    Authors: Maschke C

    Abstract
    Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic road traffic noise exposure were further examined in humans with the help of epidemiological studies. More epidemiological aircraft noise studies followed in the 1970s and thereafter. The sample size was increased, relevant confounding factors were taken into account, and the exposure and health outcomes were investigated objectively and with higher quality measures. To date, more than 20 German epidemiological traffic noise studies have focused on noise-induced health effects, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the newer German noise studies demonstrate a clear association between residential exposure to traffic noise (particularly night noise) and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, additional research is needed, particularly on vulnerable groups and multiple noise exposures. The epidemiological findings have still not been fully considered in German regulations, particularly for aircraft noise. The findings, however, were taken into account in national recommendations. The Federal Environment Agency recommends noise rating levels of 65 dB(A) for the day and 55 dB(A) for the night, as a short-term goal. In the medium term, noise rating levels of 60 / 50 (day, night) should be reached and noise rating levels of 55 / 45 in the long run.

    PMID: 21537103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular effects of noise.
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    Cardiovascular effects of noise.

    Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):201-4

    Authors: Babisch W

    PMID: 21537102 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Epidemiological studies on noise and blood pressure in children: Observations and suggestions.
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    Epidemiological studies on noise and blood pressure in children: Observations and suggestions.

    Environ Int. 2011 Jul;37(5):1030-41

    Authors: Paunović K, Stansfeld S, Clark C, Belojević G

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review was to investigate methodological differences in studies on the effects of aircraft or road-traffic noise on blood pressure (BP) of urban children, emphasizing the similarities and differences in blood pressure measurements.
    METHODS: A literature search has identified eight peer-reviewed studies, four conference proceedings and one PhD thesis on the effects of aircraft or road-traffic noise on children's blood pressure published in English in the last 30 years. Most of the studies were cross-sectional, and four studies were longitudinal, with follow-up period from one to three years. The studies were analyzed according to the following methodological issues: study design, children's characteristics, noise exposure assessment and blood pressure measurements. The effects of noise on systolic and diastolic pressure were presented in detail.
    RESULTS: Studies on aircraft noise had more uniform methodology, indicating a slight tendency towards a positive relationship between aircraft noise exposure and BP in children. The studies on road-traffic noise were methodologically diverse, but compared to aircraft noise studies they showed a more uniform trend in the direction of a positive relationship with systolic BP. The time, place and number of BP measurements, as well as the devices and cuff sizes varied among the studies. Children's age, gender, body composition and ethnicity, and socio-economic status remain the greatest source of diversity in BP values.
    CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies were methodologically diverse concerning noise exposure assessment, BP measurement, study design and control for confounders. In spite of this, they indicate a tendency toward positive association between noise exposure and children's blood pressure. We recommended strategies that might help researchers adopt similar procedures when measuring BP in future field studies.

    PMID: 21496926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise pollution survey of a two-storey intersection station in Tehran metropolitan subway system.
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    Noise pollution survey of a two-storey intersection station in Tehran metropolitan subway system.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2012 Jan;184(2):1097-106

    Authors: Ghotbi MR, Monazzam MR, Baneshi MR, Asadi M, Fard SM

    Abstract
    According to the world population increase and demand on transportation in mega cities, modern and low-cost technologies are remarkably considered. Meanwhile, subway system, as a means to transfer a large population of people, is extremely welcomed due to its particular advantages including time and cost savings, traffic jam avoidance, and unaffected by weather. Nevertheless, despite the benefits of these technologies, such devices also have been associated with disadvantages for human. In many subway systems, noisy environments are clearly observed; therefore, workers and even the passengers are exposed to higher noise levels than permissible limit. In this research, noise measurements were performed at Imam Khomeini Station as the most crowded intersection subway station in Tehran. In this descriptive-sectional survey, the amount of noise pollution was investigated at both stories of Imam Khomeini Intersection Station. A variety of noise pollution indicators such as L(eq) 10 min were separately measured at each storey through five measurement points from 7 A.M. to 10 P.M. It was shown that the equivalent sound level range at Imam Khomeini station towards Elmo Sanat and Imam Khomeini towards Mirdamad were between 70.56-79.54 and 68.35-79.12 dB (A), respectively. It was indicated that except for the entrance stairs to the subway waiting platform and the first section of the platform on both stories, other measurement stations have the same equivalent sound levels.

    PMID: 21479557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Trends in aircraft noise annoyance: the role of study and sample characteristics.
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    Trends in aircraft noise annoyance: the role of study and sample characteristics.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Apr;129(4):1953-62

    Authors: Janssen SA, Vos H, van Kempen EE, Breugelmans OR, Miedema HM

    Abstract
    Recently, it has been suggested that the annoyance of residents at a given aircraft noise exposure level increases over the years. The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesized trend and to identify its possible causes. To this end, the large database used to establish earlier exposure-response relationships on aircraft noise was updated with original data from several recent surveys, yielding a database with data from 34 separate airports. Multilevel grouped regression was used to determine the annoyance response per airport, after which meta-regression was used to investigate whether study characteristics could explain the heterogeneity in annoyance response between airports. A significant increase over the years was observed in annoyance at a given level of aircraft noise exposure. Furthermore, the type of annoyance scale, the type of contact, and the response percentage were found to be sources of heterogeneity. Of these, only the scale factor could statistically account for the trend, although other findings rule it out as a satisfactory explanation. No evidence was found for increased self-reported noise sensitivity. The results are of importance to the applicability of current exposure-annoyance relationships for aircraft noise and provide a basis for decisions on whether these need to be updated.

    PMID: 21476651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • On the aeroacoustic tonal noise generation mechanism of a sharp-edged plate.
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    On the aeroacoustic tonal noise generation mechanism of a sharp-edged plate.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Apr;129(4):EL154-60

    Authors: Moreau DJ, Brooks LA, Doolan CJ

    Abstract
    This letter presents an experimental study on the tonal noise generated by a sharp-edged flat plate at low-to-moderate Reynolds number. Flow and far-field noise data reveal that, in this particular case, the tonal noise appears to be governed by vortex shedding processes. Also related to the existence of the tonal noise is a region of separated flow slightly upstream of the trailing edge. Hydrodynamic fluctuations at selected vortex shedding frequencies are strongly amplified by the inflectional mean velocity profile in the separated shear layer. The amplified hydrodynamic fluctuations are diffracted by the trailing edge, producing strong tonal noise.

    PMID: 21476623 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of natural sounds on the perception of road traffic noise.
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    Effects of natural sounds on the perception of road traffic noise.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Apr;129(4):EL148-53

    Authors: Coensel BD, Vanwetswinkel S, Botteldooren D

    Abstract
    Recent studies show that introducing sound from water features in urban open spaces may reduce the loudness of road traffic noise, but it is not clear in which situations this measure also improves overall soundscape quality. This work describes a listening experiment on loudness, pleasantness, and eventfulness of stimuli that combine road traffic noise with fountain or bird sound at different sound levels. Adding fountain sound reduced the loudness of road traffic noise only if the latter had low temporal variability. Conversely, adding bird sound significantly enhanced soundscape pleasantness and eventfulness, more than what was achieved by adding fountain sound.

    PMID: 21476622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia.
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    Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia.

    Environ Health. 2011;10:26

    Authors: Barnett AG, Plonka K, Seow WK, Wilson LA, Hansen C

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970 mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland.
    METHODS: We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads.
    RESULTS: There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time. This effect may be due to the chemical toxins in traffic pollutants, or because of disturbed sleep due to traffic noise.

    PMID: 21453550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aspects of legislative cognizance of noise pollution in India.
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    Aspects of legislative cognizance of noise pollution in India.

    J Environ Sci Eng. 2011 Apr;53(2):219-26

    Authors: Kumar B, Oberoi SV

    Abstract
    The impacts of noise pollution are associated with the mental, physical, emotional and psychological well-being of an individual. Its damaging effects from various natural and man-made sources are potential hazards that need to be checked at the planning, executive and judicial levels. The paper presents an overview of the technological aspects of noise pollution, and seeks to visit its legislative aspects with respect to India. Excerpts from international laws are presented for a meaningful discussion. References are made from the conclusions of studies carried out by researchers and legislative cases involving noise pollution to make this paper useful for researchers, planners and administrators.

    PMID: 23033706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The Norwegian Façade Insulation Study: the efficacy of façade insulation in reducing noise annoyance due to road traffic.
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    The Norwegian Façade Insulation Study: the efficacy of façade insulation in reducing noise annoyance due to road traffic.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Mar;129(3):1381-9

    Authors: Amundsen AH, Klæboe R, Aasvang GM

    Abstract
    The efficacy of façade insulation in providing an improved indoor noise environment and in reducing indoor noise annoyance was examined in a socio-acoustic before-and-after study with a control group. An average equivalent noise reduction inside the dwellings of 7 dB was obtained from the façade insulation. Whereas 42% of the respondents were highly annoyed in the before-situation, this dropped to 16% in the after study. The conclusion is therefore that the façade insulation provided a substantial improvement in the indoor noise environment. The advantage with respect to indoor noise annoyance, of having the bedroom facing the least noise-exposed side of the dwelling corresponded to a 6 dB noise reduction. The changes in annoyance from noise reduction due to the façade insulation were in accordance with what would be expected from the exposure-response curves obtained in the before-situation. A total of 637 respondents participated in the before-study. Of these, 415 also participated in the after study. Indoor and outdoor noise exposure calculations for each of the dwellings were undertaken before and after the façade insulation was implemented.

    PMID: 21428502 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Parameters of well-being and subjective health and their relationship with residential traffic noise exposure--a representative evaluation in Switzerland.
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    Parameters of well-being and subjective health and their relationship with residential traffic noise exposure--a representative evaluation in Switzerland.

    Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):723-33

    Authors: Brink M

    Abstract
    In the present paper, the associations between residential traffic noise exposure from the noise sources--road, rail and aircraft--and self-reported indicators of health and well-being are investigated in a representative sample of the Swiss population. The study is based on record linkage of the Swiss GIS Noise Database (SonBase) and the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a large panel survey with more than 10,000 respondents all over the country. A range of exposure-effect relationships of noise exposure and parameters of health and well-being such as self-reported health status, satisfaction with health, sleep disturbances, the intensity of the wish to move from the current residence as well as the awareness of "noise problems" at the place of living were investigated. Both unadjusted as well as models that controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic status, degree of urbanization at the place of residence, and personal living conditions were developed. A contribution of residential noise exposure as regards subjective estimates of health cannot been ruled out, but must be put into perspective as the effects of exposure measures were of rather small magnitude, especially compared to well-established determinants of health. Against the background of the explanatory power of classic health predictors, the present analyses allow one to gage the contribution of residential noise exposure on subjective health outcomes from a more general, integral point of view.

    PMID: 21419495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment.
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    Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment.

    Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):766-77

    Authors: de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Antó JM, Brauer M, Briggs D, Braun-Fahrlander C, Cavill N, Cooper AR, Desqueyroux H, Fruin S, Hoek G, Panis LI, Janssen N, Jerrett M, Joffe M, Andersen ZJ, van Kempen E, Kingham S, Kubesch N, Leyden KM, Marshall JD, Matamala J, Mellios G, Mendez M, Nassif H, Ogilvie D, Peiró R, Pérez K, Rabl A, Ragettli M, Rodríguez D, Rojas D, Ruiz P, Sallis JF, Terwoert J, Toussaint JF, Tuomisto J, Zuurbier M, Lebret E

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however, about the interconnections among effects of policies considered, including potential unintended consequences.
    OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We review available literature regarding health impacts from policies that encourage active travel in the context of developing health impact assessment (HIA) models to help decision-makers propose better solutions for healthy environments. We identify important components of HIA models of modal shifts in active travel in response to transport policies and interventions.
    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Policies that increase active travel are likely to generate large individual health benefits through increases in physical activity for active travelers. Smaller, but population-wide benefits could accrue through reductions in air and noise pollution. Depending on conditions of policy implementations, risk tradeoffs are possible for some individuals who shift to active travel and consequently increase inhalation of air pollutants and exposure to traffic injuries. Well-designed policies may enhance health benefits through indirect outcomes such as improved social capital and diet, but these synergies are not sufficiently well understood to allow quantification at this time.
    CONCLUSION: Evaluating impacts of active travel policies is highly complex; however, many associations can be quantified. Identifying health-maximizing policies and conditions requires integrated HIAs.

    PMID: 21419493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Traffic-generated noise pollution: exposure of road users and populations in Metropolitan Kuwait.
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    Traffic-generated noise pollution: exposure of road users and populations in Metropolitan Kuwait.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2011 Dec;183(1-4):65-75

    Authors: Al-Mutairi NZ, Al-Attar MA, Al-Rukaibi FS

    Abstract
    This study was carried out in metropolitan Kuwait with a sound level meter to assess peak hour and off-peak hour noise level. In local/collector streets, noise ranged between 56.0 to 79.2 dBA and 55.3 to 76.4 dBA; in arterial streets, 62.3 to 89.2 dBA and 59.6 to 78.9 dBA; and in freeways, 66.7 to 94.8 dBA and 64.9 to 89.1 dBA during peak and off-peak hour respectively. Values were higher than their prescribed standards which may pose a significant impact on quality of life. Findings of this research have shown that the level of traffic-generated noise pollution in Kuwait urban area is high enough to adversely affect the human health and well-being of its residents. Over 1,400 subjects responded to a randomly administered survey that assessed the physical health, personal well-being, and mental health. People residing in neighborhoods exposed to higher noise levels have significantly higher stress and noise annoyance levels and also adversely affected their sense of well-being. In the responder analysis, those people living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly higher mean scores in general health (35 points higher, p < 0.05), sense of vitality (30 points higher, p < 0.05), and mental health (20 points higher, p < 0.05) when compared to the other group. In addition, the component scores of stress and noise sensitivity for the participants living in quiet neighborhoods had significantly lower values (30 points lower and 59 points lower, respectively) than that of the participants living in noisy neighborhood. With the rapid expansion of the infrastructures in metropolitan Kuwait, it is virtually definite that traffic noise will shortly assume a dangerous dimension, and will be a ground of escalating fear for both the public and liable policy-makers. The quality of life in metropolitan Kuwait will certainly be negatively affected.

    PMID: 21340547 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A measurement model for general noise reaction in response to aircraft noise.
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    A measurement model for general noise reaction in response to aircraft noise.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2011 Jan;129(1):200-10

    Authors: Kroesen M, Schreckenberg D

    Abstract
    In this paper a measurement model for general noise reaction (GNR) in response to aircraft noise is developed to assess the performance of aircraft noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction as indicators of this concept. For this purpose GNR is conceptualized as a superordinate latent construct underlying particular manifestations. This conceptualization is empirically tested through estimation of a second-order factor model. Data from a community survey at Frankfurt Airport are used for this purpose (N=2206). The data fit the hypothesized factor structure well and support the conceptualization of GNR as a superordinate construct. It is concluded that noise annoyance and a direct measure of general reaction to noise capture a large part of the negative feelings and emotions in response to aircraft noise but are unable to capture all relevant variance. The paper concludes with recommendations for the valid measurement of community reaction and several directions for further research.

    PMID: 21303002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise and myocardial infarction mortality.
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    Aircraft noise and myocardial infarction mortality.

    Epidemiology. 2011 Mar;22(2):283; author reply 284

    Authors: Brink M

    PMID: 21293213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Social inequalities in residential exposure to road traffic noise: an environmental justice analysis based on the RECORD Cohort Study.
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    Social inequalities in residential exposure to road traffic noise: an environmental justice analysis based on the RECORD Cohort Study.

    Occup Environ Med. 2011 May;68(5):366-74

    Authors: Havard S, Reich BJ, Bean K, Chaix B

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: To explore social inequalities in residential exposure to road traffic noise in an urban area.
    METHODS: Environmental injustice in road traffic noise exposure was investigated in Paris, France, using the RECORD Cohort Study (n = 2130) and modelled noise data. Associations were assessed by estimating noise exposure within the local area around participants' residence, considering various socioeconomic variables defined at both individual and neighbourhood level, and comparing different regression models attempting or not to control for spatial autocorrelation in noise levels.
    RESULTS: After individual-level adjustment, participants' noise exposure increased with neighbourhood educational level and dwelling value but also with proportion of non-French citizens, suggesting seemingly contradictory findings. However, when country of citizenship was defined according to its human development level, noise exposure in fact increased and decreased with the proportions of citizens from advantaged and disadvantaged countries, respectively. These findings were consistent with those reported for the other socioeconomic characteristics, suggesting higher road traffic noise exposure in advantaged neighbourhoods. Substantial collinearity between neighbourhood explanatory variables and spatial random effects caused identifiability problems that prevented successful control for spatial autocorrelation.
    CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous literature, this study shows that people living in advantaged neighbourhoods were more exposed to road traffic noise in their residential environment than their deprived counterparts. This case study demonstrates the need to systematically perform sensitivity analyses with multiple socioeconomic characteristics to avoid incorrect inferences about an environmental injustice situation and the complexity of effectively controlling for spatial autocorrelation when fixed and random components of the model are correlated.

    PMID: 21273211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road traffic noise and stroke: a prospective cohort study.
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    Road traffic noise and stroke: a prospective cohort study.

    Eur Heart J. 2011 Mar;32(6):737-44

    Authors: Sørensen M, Hvidberg M, Andersen ZJ, Nordsborg RB, Lillelund KG, Jakobsen J, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou-Nielsen O

    Abstract
    AIMS: Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.
    METHODS AND RESULTS: In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people, we identified 1881 cases of first-ever stroke in a national hospital register between 1993-1997 and 2006. Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution during the same period was estimated for all cohort members from residential address history. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and stroke incidence were analysed in a Cox regression model with stratification for gender and calendar-year and adjustment for air pollution and other potential confounders. We found an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.14 for stroke [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.25] per 10 dB higher level of road traffic noise (L(den)). There was a statistically significant interaction with age (P < 0.001), with a strong association between road traffic noise and stroke among cases over 64.5 years (IRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.13-1.43) and no association for those under 64.5 years (IRR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91-1.14).
    CONCLUSION: Exposure to residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk for stroke among people older than 64.5 years of age.

    PMID: 21266374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise pollution: a ubiquitous unrecognized disruptor of sleep?
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    Noise pollution: a ubiquitous unrecognized disruptor of sleep?

    Sleep. 2011 Jan;34(1):7-8

    Authors: Hume KI

    PMID: 21203375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and recuperation.
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    Single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and recuperation.

    Sleep. 2011 Jan;34(1):11-23

    Authors: Basner M, Müller U, Elmenhorst EM

    Abstract
    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Traffic noise disturbs sleep and may impair recuperation. There is limited information on single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and recuperation.
    DESIGN: Repeated measures.
    SETTING: Polysomnographic laboratory study.
    PARTICIPANTS: 72 healthy subjects, mean ± standard deviation 40 ± 13 years, range 18-71 years, 32 male.
    INTERVENTIONS: Exposure to 40, 80, or 120 rail, road, and/or air traffic noise events.
    MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS: Subjects were investigated for 11 consecutive nights, which included 8 noise exposure nights and one noise-free control night. Noise effects on sleep structure and continuity were subtle, even in nights with combined exposure, most likely because of habituation and an increase in arousal thresholds both within and across nights. However, cardiac arousals did not habituate across nights. Noise exposure significantly affected subjective assessments of sleep quality and recuperation, whereas objective performance was unaffected, except for a small increase in mean PVT reaction time (+4 ms, adjusted P < 0.05). Road traffic noise led to the strongest changes in sleep structure and continuity, whereas subjective assessments of sleep were worse after nights with air and rail traffic noise exposure. In contrast to daytime annoyance, cortical arousal probabilities and cardiac responses were significantly lower for air than for road and rail traffic noise (all P < 0.0001). These differences were explained by sound pressure level rise time and high frequency (> 3 kHz) noise event components.
    CONCLUSIONS: Road, rail, and air traffic noise differentially affect objective and subjective assessments of sleep. Differences in the degree of noise-induced sleep fragmentation between traffic modes were explained by the specific spectral and temporal composition of noise events, indicating potential targets for active and passive noise control. Field studies are needed to validate our findings in a setting with higher ecologic validity.

    PMID: 21203365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Vehicle motion alarms: necessity, noise pollution, or both?
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    Vehicle motion alarms: necessity, noise pollution, or both?

    Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jan;119(1):A30-3

    Authors: Holzman DC

    PMID: 21196143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Characterization of road traffic noise exposure and prevalence of hypertension in central Taiwan.
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    Characterization of road traffic noise exposure and prevalence of hypertension in central Taiwan.

    Sci Total Environ. 2011 Feb 15;409(6):1053-7

    Authors: Chang TY, Liu CS, Bao BY, Li SF, Chen TI, Lin YJ

    Abstract
    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that road traffic noise exposure is associated with hypertension in European, but the associations related to traffic sources and in other population are unclear. This study investigated the association between road traffic noise exposure and the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension among 321 male and 499 female resided near main roads in Taichung, Taiwan. Road traffic noise levels and traffic flow rates were measured simultaneously during 0900-1700 on weekdays in 2008. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension by adjusting for potential confounders. Road traffic noise levels were significantly associated with traffic flow rates of motorcycles, light-duty gasoline vehicles, light-duty diesel trucks and heavy-duty diesel trucks and had the highest correlation with motorcycles. Per one unit (vehicle per hour) increase in the log-transformed traffic flow rate of motorcycles was significantly related to the increment of 7.20±1.40 A-weighted decibels (dBA) in the traffic noise exposure. The high-exposure group (82.2±1.7dBA, n=358) had the significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (adjusted OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.08-4.26) than the low-exposure group (77.2±1.6dBA, n=462). There was an increasing trend (p=0.023) between the prevalence of hypertension and residents exposed to <77dBA, 77-80dBA, 80-83dBA and ≥83dBA, respectively. Such an association was pronounced after adjusting for the total traffic flow rate. The study findings suggest that road traffic noise exposure may be associated with hypertension and the dominant source of traffic noise is motorcycles in central Taiwan.

    PMID: 21183206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Local determinants of road traffic noise levels versus determinants of air pollution levels in a Mediterranean city.
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    Local determinants of road traffic noise levels versus determinants of air pollution levels in a Mediterranean city.

    Environ Res. 2011 Jan;111(1):177-83

    Authors: Foraster M, Deltell A, Basagaña X, Medina-Ramón M, Aguilera I, Bouso L, Grau M, Phuleria HC, Rivera M, Slama R, Sunyer J, Targa J, Künzli N

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Both traffic-related noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Spatial correlations between these environmental stressors may entail mutual confounding in epidemiological studies investigating their long-term effects. Few studies have investigated their correlation - none in Spain - and results differ among cities.
    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the contribution of urban land-use and traffic variables to the noise-air pollution correlation in Girona town, where an investigation of the chronic effects of air pollution and noise on CVD takes place (REGICOR-AIR).
    METHODOLOGY: Outdoor annual mean concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) derived from monthly passive sampler measurements were obtained at 83 residential locations. Long-term average traffic-related noise levels from a validated model were assigned to each residence. Linear regression models were fitted both for NO(2) and noise.
    RESULTS: The correlation between NO(2) and noise (L(24h)) was 0.62. However, the correlation differed across the urban space, with lower correlations at sites with higher traffic density and in the modern downtown. Traffic density, distance from the location to the sidewalk and building density nearby explained 35.6% and 73.2% of the variability of NO(2) and noise levels, respectively. The correlation between the residuals of the two models suggested the presence of other unmeasured common variables.
    CONCLUSIONS: The substantial correlation between traffic-related noise and NO(2), endorsed by common determinants, and the dependence of this correlation on complex local characteristics call for careful evaluations of both factors to ultimately assess their cardiovascular effects.

    PMID: 21167480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Are both air pollution and noise driving adverse cardiovascular health effects from motor vehicles?
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    Are both air pollution and noise driving adverse cardiovascular health effects from motor vehicles?

    Environ Res. 2011 Jan;111(1):184-5

    Authors: Allen RW, Adar SD

    PMID: 21112051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.
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    Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    J Laryngol Otol. 2011 Feb;125(2):121-5

    Authors: Mikulec AA, Lukens SB, Jackson LE, Deyoung MN

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed.
    METHODS: Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h.
    RESULTS: When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top.
    CONCLUSION: Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

    PMID: 21106136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Traffic noise and hypertension.
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    Traffic noise and hypertension.

    Environ Res. 2011 Jan;111(1):186-7

    Authors: Barregard L

    PMID: 21092948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Medication use in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic in six European countries: results of the HYENA study.
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    Medication use in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic in six European countries: results of the HYENA study.

    Occup Environ Med. 2011 Jul;68(7):518-24

    Authors: Floud S, Vigna-Taglianti F, Hansell A, Blangiardo M, Houthuijs D, Breugelmans O, Cadum E, Babisch W, Selander J, Pershagen G, Antoniotti MC, Pisani S, Dimakopoulou K, Haralabidis AS, Velonakis V, Jarup L, HYENA Study Team

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: Studies on the health effects of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure suggest excess risks of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the use of sedatives and hypnotics. Our aim was to assess the use of medication in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured the use of prescribed antihypertensives, antacids, anxiolytics, hypnotics, antidepressants and antasthmatics in 4,861 persons living near seven airports in six European countries (UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, and Greece). Exposure was assessed using models with 1 dB resolution (5 dB for UK road traffic noise) and spatial resolution of 250×250 m for aircraft and 10×10 m for road traffic noise. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders.
    RESULTS: We found marked differences between countries in the effect of aircraft noise on antihypertensive use; for night-time aircraft noise, a 10 dB increase in exposure was associated with ORs of 1.34 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.57) for the UK and 1.19 (1.02 to 1.38) for the Netherlands but no significant associations were found for other countries. For day-time aircraft noise, excess risks were found for the UK (OR 1.35; CI: 1.13 to 1.60) but a risk deficit for Italy (OR 0.82; CI: 0.71 to 0.96). There was an excess risk of taking anxiolytic medication in relation to aircraft noise (OR 1.28; CI: 1.04 to 1.57 for daytime and OR 1.27; CI: 1.01 to 1.59 for night-time) which held across countries. We also found an association between exposure to 24hr road traffic noise and the use of antacids by men (OR 1.39; CI 1.11 to 1.74).
    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an effect of aircraft noise on the use of antihypertensive medication, but this effect did not hold for all countries. Results were more consistent across countries for the increased use of anxiolytics in relation to aircraft noise.

    PMID: 21084328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Transportation noise and exposed population of an urban area in the Republic of Korea.
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    Transportation noise and exposed population of an urban area in the Republic of Korea.

    Environ Int. 2011 Feb;37(2):328-34

    Authors: Ko JH, Chang SI, Kim M, Holt JB, Seong JC

    Abstract
    Using noise prediction models, we explored the transportation noise levels of Youngdeungpo-gu, an urbanized area of Seoul Metropolitan City in the Republic of Korea. In addition, we estimated the population exposed to transportation noise levels and determined how many people are vulnerable to noise levels that would cause serious annoyance and sleep disturbance. Compared with the World Health Organization [WHO] recommended levels, the daytime and nighttime transportation noise levels were still high enough to have the two psychosocial effects on people when considering the recommended levels of the World Health Organization (WHO; 55 decibels [dB[A]] and 40 dB[A] for daytime and nighttime, respectively). Particularly, nighttime transportation noise was discovered to be harmful to a wider area and more people than daytime noise. Approximately 91% of the Youngdeungpo-gu area experienced nighttime transportation noise levels exceeding those recommended by WHO. It was estimated that as much as 80% of the people in the study area were exposed to transportation noise levels >40 dB[A] during nighttime. Taking this into account, there is an urgent need to control and reduce transportation noise levels in Seoul, to protect residents against the potential ill health effects caused by urban transportation.

    PMID: 21056472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of noise pollution over the blood serum immunoglobulins and auditory system on the VFM airport workers, Van, Turkey.
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    Effects of noise pollution over the blood serum immunoglobulins and auditory system on the VFM airport workers, Van, Turkey.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2011 Jun;177(1-4):537-43

    Authors: Akan Z, Körpinar MA, Tulgar M

    Abstract
    Noise pollution is a common health problem for developing countries. Especially highways and airports lead to noise pollution in different levels and in many frequencies. In this study, we focused on the effect of noise pollution in airports. This work aimed measurements of noise pollution levels in Van Ferit Melen (VFM) airport and effect of noise pollution over the immunoglobulin A, G, and M changes among VFM airport workers in Turkey. It was seen that apron and terminal workers were exposed to high noise (>80 dB(A)) without any protective precautions. Noise-induced temporary threshold shifts and noise-induced permanent threshold shifts were detected between the apron workers (p < 0.001) and terminal workers (p < 0.005). IgA values of apron terminal and control group workers were approximately the same in the morning and increased in a linear manner during the day. This increase was statistically significant (p < 0.001). IgG and IgM values of apron, terminal, and control group workers were approximately same in the morning. Apron and terminal workers IgG and IgM levels were increased until noon and then decreased until evening as compare to control group, but these changes were not statically significant (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that the noise pollution in the VFM airport could lead to hearing loss and changes in blood serum immunoglobulin levels of airport workers. Blood serum immunoglobulin changes might be due to vibrational effects of noise pollution. Airport workers should apply protective precautions against effect of noise pollution in the VFM airport.

    PMID: 20725854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems.
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    Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems.

    Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011 Feb;84(2):211-24

    Authors: Kristiansen J, Persson R, Björk J, Albin M, Jakobsson K, Ostergren PO, Ardö J

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise.
    METHODS: Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis.
    RESULTS: With regard to sleep problems not attributed to any external source (general sleep problems), independent main effects were found for traffic noise (women), decision authority (women), job strain, job demands, suffering from pain or other afflictions, worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, having troubles paying the bills, and having a sick, disabled, or old relative to take care of (women). Significant synergistic effects were found for traffic noise and experiencing bullying at work in women. With regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise, strong synergistic interactions were found between traffic noise and, respectively, job demands (men), having pain or other afflictions, taking care of a sick, old, or disabled relative, and having troubles paying the bills. Main effects were found for worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, job strain (men), and decision authority (men). Synergistic interactions could potentially contribute with 10-20% of the sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population.
    CONCLUSIONS: Work stress, pain, and different worries were independently associated with general sleep problems and showed in general no synergistic interaction with traffic noise. In contrast, synergistic effects between traffic noise and psychological factors were found with regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise. The synergy may contribute significantly to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population.

    PMID: 20697733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • In flight auscultation: comparison of electronic and conventional stethoscopes.
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    In flight auscultation: comparison of electronic and conventional stethoscopes.

    Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Oct;29(8):932-5

    Authors: Tourtier JP, Fontaine E, Coste S, Ramsang S, Schiano P, Viaggi M, Libert N, Durand X, Chargari C, Borne M

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: The ability to auscultate during air medical transport is compromised by high ambient noise levels. The aim of this study was to assess the capabilities of a traditional and an amplified stethoscope (which is expected to reduce background and ambient noise) to assess heart and breath sounds during medical transport in a Falcon 50 plane.
    METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized study was performed. We tested 1 model of traditional stethoscope (Littman cardiology III) and 1 model of amplified stethoscope (Littman 3100). We studied heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard Falcon 50 (medically configured). For each, the quality of auscultation was described using a numeric rating scale (ranging from 0 to 10, with 0 corresponding to "I hear nothing" and 10 corresponding to "I hear perfectly"). Comparisons were accomplished using a t test for paired values.
    RESULTS: A total of 32 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the rating scale was 5.8 ± 1.5 and 6.4 ± 1.9, respectively, for the traditional and amplified stethoscope (P = .018). For lung sounds, quality of auscultation was estimated at 3.3 ± 2.4 for traditional stethoscope and at 3.7 ± 2.9 for amplified stethoscope (P = .15).
    CONCLUSIONS: Practicians in Falcon 50 are more able to hear cardiac sounds with an amplified than with a traditional stethoscope, whereas there is no significant difference concerning breath sounds auscultation.

    PMID: 20674225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Can exposure to noise affect the 24 h blood pressure profile? Results from the HYENA study.
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    Can exposure to noise affect the 24 h blood pressure profile? Results from the HYENA study.

    J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Jun;65(6):535-41

    Authors: Haralabidis AS, Dimakopoulou K, Velonaki V, Barbaglia G, Mussin M, Giampaolo M, Selander J, Pershagen G, Dudley ML, Babisch W, Swart W, Katsouyanni K, Jarup L, HYENA Consortium

    Abstract
    UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE; To study the association between exposure to transportation noise and blood pressure (BP) reduction during nighttime sleep.
    METHODS: 24-h ambulatory BP measurements at 15-min intervals were carried out on 149 persons living near four major European airports. Noise indicators included total and source-specific equivalent indoor noise, total number of noise events, annoyance scores for aircraft and road traffic nighttime noise. Long-term noise exposure was also determined. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied.
    RESULTS: The pooled estimates show that the only noise indicator associated consistently with a decrease in BP dipping is road traffic noise. The effect shows that a 5 dB increase in measured road traffic noise during the study night is associated with 0.8% (-1.55, -0.05) less dipping in diastolic BP. Noise from aircraft was not associated with a decrease in dipping, except for a non-significant decrease noted in Athens, where the aircraft noise was higher. Noise from indoor sources did not affect BP dipping.
    CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic noise exposure may be associated with a decrease in dipping. Noise from aircraft was not found to affect dipping in a consistent way across centres and indoor noise was not associated with dipping.

    PMID: 20584724 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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