Studien 2010

pubmed: studien aus 2010

NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=((((Noise, Transportation[MeSH Terms]) OR transportation noise[MeSH Terms]) OR aircraft noise[Title]) AND Humans[MeSH Terms]) AND ("2010/01/01"[PDAT] : "2010/12/31"[PDAT])
  • The effect of traffic noise on the hearing level of people on Karachi streets.
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    The effect of traffic noise on the hearing level of people on Karachi streets.

    J Pak Med Assoc. 2010 Oct;60(10):813-6

    Authors: Jawed I, Musani A, Mahmood R, Wadood, Khambaty Y, Asim M

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of traffic noise on hearing ability of subjects prone to traffic noise exposure.
    METHOD: A hospital based prospective study was performed comprising of 200 selected subjects significantly exposed to traffic noise. These included rickshaw drivers, traffic constables and shopkeepers in central business area. All subjects were questioned according to a Performa after which ENT examination was carried out followed by Pure Tone Audiometery.
    RESULTS: Hearing impairment showed correlation with the duration of job when analyzed by linear regression analysis with correlation coefficient r = 0.36 (p < 0.001), Hearing impairment was 33.81 + 0.42 dB according to the duration of job (in years).
    CONCLUSION: Subjects are perceptually exposed to potentially damaging sound pressure level in the metropolis of Karachi. It was observed that audiologically consistent noise induced hearing loss was found to be 0.42 dB per octave from 500Hz to 2000Hz per year of duration of job.

    PMID: 21381608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Analysis of a simplified normalized covariance measure based on binary weighting functions for predicting the intelligibility of noise-suppressed speech.
    Related Articles

    Analysis of a simplified normalized covariance measure based on binary weighting functions for predicting the intelligibility of noise-suppressed speech.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Dec;128(6):3715-23

    Authors: Chen F, Loizou PC

    Abstract
    The normalized covariance measure (NCM) has been shown previously to predict reliably the intelligibility of noise-suppressed speech containing non-linear distortions. This study analyzes a simplified NCM measure that requires only a small number of bands (not necessarily contiguous) and uses simple binary (1 or 0) weighting functions. The rationale behind the use of a small number of bands is to account for the fact that the spectral information contained in contiguous or nearby bands is correlated and redundant. The modified NCM measure was evaluated with speech intelligibility scores obtained by normal-hearing listeners in 72 noisy conditions involving noise-suppressed speech corrupted by four different types of maskers (car, babble, train, and street interferences). High correlation (r = 0.8) was obtained with the modified NCM measure even when only one band was used. Further analysis revealed a masker-specific pattern of correlations when only one band was used, and bands with low correlation signified the corresponding envelopes that have been severely distorted by the noise-suppression algorithm and/or the masker. Correlation improved to r = 0.84 when only two disjoint bands (centered at 325 and 1874 Hz) were used. Even further improvements in correlation (r = 0.85) were obtained when three or four lower-frequency (<700 Hz) bands were selected.

    PMID: 21218903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Characterization of road traffic noise exposure and prevalence of hypertension in central Taiwan.
    Related Articles

    Characterization of road traffic noise exposure and prevalence of hypertension in central Taiwan.

    Sci Total Environ. 2011 Feb 15;409(6):1053-7

    Authors: Chang TY, Liu CS, Bao BY, Li SF, Chen TI, Lin YJ

    Abstract
    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that road traffic noise exposure is associated with hypertension in European, but the associations related to traffic sources and in other population are unclear. This study investigated the association between road traffic noise exposure and the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension among 321 male and 499 female resided near main roads in Taichung, Taiwan. Road traffic noise levels and traffic flow rates were measured simultaneously during 0900-1700 on weekdays in 2008. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension by adjusting for potential confounders. Road traffic noise levels were significantly associated with traffic flow rates of motorcycles, light-duty gasoline vehicles, light-duty diesel trucks and heavy-duty diesel trucks and had the highest correlation with motorcycles. Per one unit (vehicle per hour) increase in the log-transformed traffic flow rate of motorcycles was significantly related to the increment of 7.20±1.40 A-weighted decibels (dBA) in the traffic noise exposure. The high-exposure group (82.2±1.7dBA, n=358) had the significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (adjusted OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.08-4.26) than the low-exposure group (77.2±1.6dBA, n=462). There was an increasing trend (p=0.023) between the prevalence of hypertension and residents exposed to <77dBA, 77-80dBA, 80-83dBA and ≥83dBA, respectively. Such an association was pronounced after adjusting for the total traffic flow rate. The study findings suggest that road traffic noise exposure may be associated with hypertension and the dominant source of traffic noise is motorcycles in central Taiwan.

    PMID: 21183206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Local determinants of road traffic noise levels versus determinants of air pollution levels in a Mediterranean city.
    Related Articles

    Local determinants of road traffic noise levels versus determinants of air pollution levels in a Mediterranean city.

    Environ Res. 2011 Jan;111(1):177-83

    Authors: Foraster M, Deltell A, Basagaña X, Medina-Ramón M, Aguilera I, Bouso L, Grau M, Phuleria HC, Rivera M, Slama R, Sunyer J, Targa J, Künzli N

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Both traffic-related noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Spatial correlations between these environmental stressors may entail mutual confounding in epidemiological studies investigating their long-term effects. Few studies have investigated their correlation - none in Spain - and results differ among cities.
    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the contribution of urban land-use and traffic variables to the noise-air pollution correlation in Girona town, where an investigation of the chronic effects of air pollution and noise on CVD takes place (REGICOR-AIR).
    METHODOLOGY: Outdoor annual mean concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) derived from monthly passive sampler measurements were obtained at 83 residential locations. Long-term average traffic-related noise levels from a validated model were assigned to each residence. Linear regression models were fitted both for NO(2) and noise.
    RESULTS: The correlation between NO(2) and noise (L(24h)) was 0.62. However, the correlation differed across the urban space, with lower correlations at sites with higher traffic density and in the modern downtown. Traffic density, distance from the location to the sidewalk and building density nearby explained 35.6% and 73.2% of the variability of NO(2) and noise levels, respectively. The correlation between the residuals of the two models suggested the presence of other unmeasured common variables.
    CONCLUSIONS: The substantial correlation between traffic-related noise and NO(2), endorsed by common determinants, and the dependence of this correlation on complex local characteristics call for careful evaluations of both factors to ultimately assess their cardiovascular effects.

    PMID: 21167480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on the use of outdoor recreational areas.
    Related Articles

    Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on the use of outdoor recreational areas.

    Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Nov;7(11):3890-915

    Authors: Krog NH, Engdahl B, Tambs K

    Abstract
    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied.

    PMID: 21139867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on experiential qualities of outdoor recreational areas.
    Related Articles

    Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on experiential qualities of outdoor recreational areas.

    Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Oct;7(10):3739-59

    Authors: Krog NH, Engdahl B, Tambs K

    Abstract
    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found.

    PMID: 21139858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Are both air pollution and noise driving adverse cardiovascular health effects from motor vehicles?
    Related Articles

    Are both air pollution and noise driving adverse cardiovascular health effects from motor vehicles?

    Environ Res. 2011 Jan;111(1):184-5

    Authors: Allen RW, Adar SD

    PMID: 21112051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effects of long-term exposure to railway and road traffic noise on subjective sleep disturbance.
    Related Articles

    The effects of long-term exposure to railway and road traffic noise on subjective sleep disturbance.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Nov;128(5):2829-35

    Authors: Hong J, Kim J, Lim C, Kim K, Lee S

    Abstract
    The exposure-response relationships between subjective annoyance with sleep disturbance from railway trains and road traffic noise were established from an extensive social survey by CENVR (Center for Environmental Noise and Vibration Research) in Korea. The objectives of this research are to determine the long-term effects of noise on sleep and to compare the exposure-response relationships from different noise sources with those from other studies and to elucidate the effects of some modifying factors on subjective responses to noise. From an investigation of the percentage of a highly sleep-disturbed population (%HSD) in response to railway and road traffic noise, it was found that sleep is affected more by railway noise than by road traffic noise. The effects of non-acoustical factors on the responses were examined and sensitivity was shown to be a significant modifying factor, as it pertains to subjective sleep disturbance. A comparison of the response curves from an analysis of pooled data from predominantly European surveys by Miedema and Vos [Behav. Sleep Med. 5, 1-20 (2007)] with the response curves from this survey showed more of a subjective sleep disturbance response in this survey to railway noise, whereas there was no significant difference in terms of a response to road traffic noise.

    PMID: 21110578 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The role of annoyance in the relation between transportation noise and children's health and cognition.
    Related Articles

    The role of annoyance in the relation between transportation noise and children's health and cognition.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Nov;128(5):2817-28

    Authors: van Kempen E, van Kamp I, Nilsson M, Lammers J, Emmen H, Clark C, Stansfeld S

    Abstract
    On the basis of this study it cannot be ruled out that the appraisal of the noise affects the association between air and road traffic noise exposure and children's health and cognition. However, the conclusion is limited due to the relatively small group of annoyed children, which may have influenced our group comparisons. Furthermore, the observed relation between annoyance and perceived health is possibly biased due to the fact that both were measured within the same questionnaire. These are the main conclusions of a cross-sectional multi-center study carried out among 2,844 schoolchildren (age 9-11 years) attending 89 primary schools around three European airports. The aim was to investigate how annoyance affects the relation between air and road traffic noise exposure and children's health and cognition. Different, sometimes competing, working mechanisms of how noise affects children's health are suggested. Some effects are supposed to be precipitated through (chronic) stress, while others may arise directly. There is still no theory that can adequately account for the circumstances in which noise will affect cognitive performance.

    PMID: 21110577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Bicoherence analysis of model-scale jet noise.
    Related Articles

    Bicoherence analysis of model-scale jet noise.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Nov;128(5):EL211-6

    Authors: Gee KL, Atchley AA, Falco LE, Shepherd MR, Ukeiley LS, Jansen BJ, Seiner JM

    Abstract
    Bicoherence analysis has been used to characterize nonlinear effects in the propagation of noise from a model-scale, Mach-2.0, unheated jet. Nonlinear propagation effects are predominantly limited to regions near the peak directivity angle for this jet source and propagation range. The analysis also examines the practice of identifying nonlinear propagation by comparing spectra measured at two different distances and assuming far-field, linear propagation between them. This spectral comparison method can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the role of nonlinearity when the observations are made in the geometric near field of an extended, directional radiator, such as a jet.

    PMID: 21110528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.
    Related Articles

    Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    J Laryngol Otol. 2011 Feb;125(2):121-5

    Authors: Mikulec AA, Lukens SB, Jackson LE, Deyoung MN

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed.
    METHODS: Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h.
    RESULTS: When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top.
    CONCLUSION: Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

    PMID: 21106136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Traffic noise and hypertension.
    Related Articles

    Traffic noise and hypertension.

    Environ Res. 2011 Jan;111(1):186-7

    Authors: Barregard L

    PMID: 21092948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Medication use in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic in six European countries: results of the HYENA study.
    Related Articles

    Medication use in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic in six European countries: results of the HYENA study.

    Occup Environ Med. 2011 Jul;68(7):518-24

    Authors: Floud S, Vigna-Taglianti F, Hansell A, Blangiardo M, Houthuijs D, Breugelmans O, Cadum E, Babisch W, Selander J, Pershagen G, Antoniotti MC, Pisani S, Dimakopoulou K, Haralabidis AS, Velonakis V, Jarup L, HYENA Study Team

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: Studies on the health effects of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure suggest excess risks of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the use of sedatives and hypnotics. Our aim was to assess the use of medication in relation to noise from aircraft and road traffic.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured the use of prescribed antihypertensives, antacids, anxiolytics, hypnotics, antidepressants and antasthmatics in 4,861 persons living near seven airports in six European countries (UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, and Greece). Exposure was assessed using models with 1 dB resolution (5 dB for UK road traffic noise) and spatial resolution of 250×250 m for aircraft and 10×10 m for road traffic noise. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders.
    RESULTS: We found marked differences between countries in the effect of aircraft noise on antihypertensive use; for night-time aircraft noise, a 10 dB increase in exposure was associated with ORs of 1.34 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.57) for the UK and 1.19 (1.02 to 1.38) for the Netherlands but no significant associations were found for other countries. For day-time aircraft noise, excess risks were found for the UK (OR 1.35; CI: 1.13 to 1.60) but a risk deficit for Italy (OR 0.82; CI: 0.71 to 0.96). There was an excess risk of taking anxiolytic medication in relation to aircraft noise (OR 1.28; CI: 1.04 to 1.57 for daytime and OR 1.27; CI: 1.01 to 1.59 for night-time) which held across countries. We also found an association between exposure to 24hr road traffic noise and the use of antacids by men (OR 1.39; CI 1.11 to 1.74).
    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an effect of aircraft noise on the use of antihypertensive medication, but this effect did not hold for all countries. Results were more consistent across countries for the increased use of anxiolytics in relation to aircraft noise.

    PMID: 21084328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Transportation noise and exposed population of an urban area in the Republic of Korea.
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    Transportation noise and exposed population of an urban area in the Republic of Korea.

    Environ Int. 2011 Feb;37(2):328-34

    Authors: Ko JH, Chang SI, Kim M, Holt JB, Seong JC

    Abstract
    Using noise prediction models, we explored the transportation noise levels of Youngdeungpo-gu, an urbanized area of Seoul Metropolitan City in the Republic of Korea. In addition, we estimated the population exposed to transportation noise levels and determined how many people are vulnerable to noise levels that would cause serious annoyance and sleep disturbance. Compared with the World Health Organization [WHO] recommended levels, the daytime and nighttime transportation noise levels were still high enough to have the two psychosocial effects on people when considering the recommended levels of the World Health Organization (WHO; 55 decibels [dB[A]] and 40 dB[A] for daytime and nighttime, respectively). Particularly, nighttime transportation noise was discovered to be harmful to a wider area and more people than daytime noise. Approximately 91% of the Youngdeungpo-gu area experienced nighttime transportation noise levels exceeding those recommended by WHO. It was estimated that as much as 80% of the people in the study area were exposed to transportation noise levels >40 dB[A] during nighttime. Taking this into account, there is an urgent need to control and reduce transportation noise levels in Seoul, to protect residents against the potential ill health effects caused by urban transportation.

    PMID: 21056472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise pollution in India.
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    Noise pollution in India.

    J Indian Med Assoc. 2010 Mar;108(3):139

    Authors: Basu DK

    PMID: 21043349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise and quality of life around Frankfurt Airport.
    Related Articles

    Aircraft noise and quality of life around Frankfurt Airport.

    Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Sep;7(9):3382-405

    Authors: Schreckenberg D, Meis M, Kahl C, Peschel C, Eikmann T

    Abstract
    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

    PMID: 20948931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction.
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    Aircraft noise, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction.

    Epidemiology. 2010 Nov;21(6):829-36

    Authors: Huss A, Spoerri A, Egger M, Röösli M, Swiss National Cohort Study Group

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: Myocardial infarction has been associated with both transportation noise and air pollution. We examined residential exposure to aircraft noise and mortality from myocardial infarction, taking air pollution into account.
    METHODS: We analyzed the Swiss National Cohort, which includes geocoded information on residence. Exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution was determined based on geospatial noise and air-pollution (PM10) models and distance to major roads. We used Cox proportional hazard models, with age as the timescale. We compared the risk of death across categories of A-weighted sound pressure levels (dB(A)) and by duration of living in exposed corridors, adjusting for PM10 levels, distance to major roads, sex, education, and socioeconomic position of the municipality.
    RESULTS: We analyzed 4.6 million persons older than 30 years who were followed from near the end of 2000 through December 2005, including 15,532 deaths from myocardial infarction (ICD-10 codes I 21, I 22). Mortality increased with increasing level and duration of aircraft noise. The adjusted hazard ratio comparing ≥60 dB(A) with <45 dB(A) was 1.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.96-1.7) overall, and 1.5 (1.0-2.2) in persons who had lived at the same place for at least 15 years. None of the other endpoints (mortality from all causes, all circulatory disease, cerebrovascular disease, stroke, and lung cancer) was associated with aircraft noise.
    CONCLUSION: Aircraft noise was associated with mortality from myocardial infarction, with a dose-response relationship for level and duration of exposure. The association does not appear to be explained by exposure to particulate matter air pollution, education, or socioeconomic status of the municipality.

    PMID: 20881600 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise and incidence of hypertension--gender specific effects.
    Related Articles

    Aircraft noise and incidence of hypertension--gender specific effects.

    Environ Res. 2010 Nov;110(8):764-72

    Authors: Eriksson C, Bluhm G, Hilding A, Ostenson CG, Pershagen G

    Abstract
    Recent studies show associations between aircraft noise and cardiovascular outcomes such as hypertension. However, these studies were mostly cross-sectional and there are uncertainties regarding potential gender differences as well as sensitive subgroups. In this study, we investigated the cumulative incidence of hypertension in relation to aircraft noise exposure among Swedish men and women living in Stockholm County. A total of 4721 subjects, aged 35-56 at baseline, were followed for 8-10 years. The population was selected according to family history of diabetes, which was present for half of the subjects. The exposure assessment was performed by geographical information systems and based on residential history during the period of follow-up. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Additional information regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension as well as various lifestyle factors was provided by questionnaires. In the overall population, no increased risk for hypertension was found among subjects exposed to aircraft noise ≥ 50 dB(A) L(den); relative risk (RR) 1.02 (95% CI 0.90-1.15). When restricting the cohort to those not using tobacco at the blood pressure measurements, a significant risk increase per 5 dB(A) of aircraft noise exposure was found in men; RR 1.21 (1.05-1.39), but not in women; RR 0.97 (0.83-1.13). In both sexes combined, an increased risk of hypertension related to aircraft noise exposure was indicated primarily among those reporting annoyance to aircraft noise; RR 1.42 (1.11-1.82). No consistent effect modification was detected for any of the cardiovascular risk factors under investigation although a family history of diabetes appeared to modify the risk in women. In conclusion, the results suggest an increased risk of hypertension following long-term aircraft noise exposure in men, and that subjects annoyed by aircraft noise may be particularly sensitive to noise related hypertension.

    PMID: 20880521 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Traffic noise, toxin, emotional stress: how to control?
    Related Articles

    Traffic noise, toxin, emotional stress: how to control?

    Noise Health. 2010 Oct-Dec;12(49):283

    Authors: Wiwanitkit V

    PMID: 20871184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance.
    Related Articles

    Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance.

    Noise Health. 2010 Oct-Dec;12(49):255-62

    Authors: Stansfeld S, Hygge S, Clark C, Alfred T

    Abstract
    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these questions. In conclusion, results from both studies suggest that night aircraft noise exposure does not appear to add any cognitive performance decrement to the cognitive decrement induced by daytime aircraft noise alone. We suggest that the school should be the main focus of attention for protection of children against the effects of aircraft noise on school performance.

    PMID: 20871180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children's episodic memory: the RANCH project.
    Related Articles

    The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children's episodic memory: the RANCH project.

    Noise Health. 2010 Oct-Dec;12(49):244-54

    Authors: Matheson M, Clark C, Martin R, van Kempen E, Haines M, Barrio IL, Hygge S, Stansfeld S

    Abstract
    Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children's performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months) completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children's episodic memory.

    PMID: 20871179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Criteria of noise pathologies in aviation specialists and their prognostic implications].
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    [Criteria of noise pathologies in aviation specialists and their prognostic implications].

    Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2010 Mar-Apr;44(2):18-22

    Authors: Soldatov SK, Zinkin VN, Bukhtiiarov IV, Sheshegov PM, Mironov VG, Rossel's AV, Zharov EV

    Abstract
    The paper outlines the criteria of noise pathologies in aviation specialists after extended period of exposure to high-intensity noise and infrared sound. Analysis of morbidity and clinical researches shows prevalence of such pathologies as neurosensory deafness, hypertension and discirculatory encephalopathy. These disorders were correlated with career length.

    PMID: 20799655 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of noise pollution over the blood serum immunoglobulins and auditory system on the VFM airport workers, Van, Turkey.
    Related Articles

    Effects of noise pollution over the blood serum immunoglobulins and auditory system on the VFM airport workers, Van, Turkey.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2011 Jun;177(1-4):537-43

    Authors: Akan Z, Körpinar MA, Tulgar M

    Abstract
    Noise pollution is a common health problem for developing countries. Especially highways and airports lead to noise pollution in different levels and in many frequencies. In this study, we focused on the effect of noise pollution in airports. This work aimed measurements of noise pollution levels in Van Ferit Melen (VFM) airport and effect of noise pollution over the immunoglobulin A, G, and M changes among VFM airport workers in Turkey. It was seen that apron and terminal workers were exposed to high noise (>80 dB(A)) without any protective precautions. Noise-induced temporary threshold shifts and noise-induced permanent threshold shifts were detected between the apron workers (p < 0.001) and terminal workers (p < 0.005). IgA values of apron terminal and control group workers were approximately the same in the morning and increased in a linear manner during the day. This increase was statistically significant (p < 0.001). IgG and IgM values of apron, terminal, and control group workers were approximately same in the morning. Apron and terminal workers IgG and IgM levels were increased until noon and then decreased until evening as compare to control group, but these changes were not statically significant (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that the noise pollution in the VFM airport could lead to hearing loss and changes in blood serum immunoglobulin levels of airport workers. Blood serum immunoglobulin changes might be due to vibrational effects of noise pollution. Airport workers should apply protective precautions against effect of noise pollution in the VFM airport.

    PMID: 20725854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise, sleep and poor health: Modeling the relationship between road traffic noise and cardiovascular problems.
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    Noise, sleep and poor health: Modeling the relationship between road traffic noise and cardiovascular problems.

    Sci Total Environ. 2010 Oct 1;408(21):4935-42

    Authors: Fyhri A, Aasvang GM

    Abstract
    Several adverse effects have been associated with exposure to traffic noise. Studies supporting a noise-stress-health model have suggested links between noise level and increased noradrenalin concentrations in urine, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Among the more commonly documented effects, sleep disturbances have been regarded as being the most serious. Both noise annoyance and sleep disturbance have been proposed as important mediators of the impact of noise on health. The present paper investigates the relationships among long-term noise exposure, annoyance, sleeping problems and subjective health complaints by the use of a structural equation model. Further, it aims at giving insight into how noise sensitivity is related to sleep disturbances from road traffic noise. Finally, it examines whether any effect of noise exposure or response to noise can be detected on prevalence of cardiovascular problems, when information on sleep disturbances is included in a model. Data from a questionnaire survey conducted among a population sample in Oslo (N=2786) are combined with nighttime noise levels calculated from outside each respondents dwelling, at the bedroom façade. The results of the analysis showed significant relationships between noise annoyance at night and sleeping problems. The model also showed strong links among pseudoneurological complaints, annoyance and sleeping problems, thus pointing to the importance of including information on psychosomatic disorders and mild psychological problems in future studies looking at potential health effects of noise. The analysis showed no relationship between neither noise exposure nor response to noise and cardiovascular problems.

    PMID: 20708214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems.
    Related Articles

    Work stress, worries, and pain interact synergistically with modelled traffic noise on cross-sectional associations with self-reported sleep problems.

    Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011 Feb;84(2):211-24

    Authors: Kristiansen J, Persson R, Björk J, Albin M, Jakobsson K, Ostergren PO, Ardö J

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of sleep problems associated with work stress (job strain, job demands, and decision authority), worries and pain and to investigate the synergistic interaction between these factors and traffic noise.
    METHODS: Sleep problems and predictor variables were assessed in a cross-sectional public health survey with 12,093 respondents. Traffic noise levels were assessed using modelled A-weighted energy equivalent traffic sound levels at the residence. The risk of sleep problems was modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis.
    RESULTS: With regard to sleep problems not attributed to any external source (general sleep problems), independent main effects were found for traffic noise (women), decision authority (women), job strain, job demands, suffering from pain or other afflictions, worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, having troubles paying the bills, and having a sick, disabled, or old relative to take care of (women). Significant synergistic effects were found for traffic noise and experiencing bullying at work in women. With regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise, strong synergistic interactions were found between traffic noise and, respectively, job demands (men), having pain or other afflictions, taking care of a sick, old, or disabled relative, and having troubles paying the bills. Main effects were found for worries about losing the job, experiencing bullying at work, job strain (men), and decision authority (men). Synergistic interactions could potentially contribute with 10-20% of the sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population.
    CONCLUSIONS: Work stress, pain, and different worries were independently associated with general sleep problems and showed in general no synergistic interaction with traffic noise. In contrast, synergistic effects between traffic noise and psychological factors were found with regard to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise. The synergy may contribute significantly to sleep problems attributed to traffic noise in the population.

    PMID: 20697733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Flight physiology: science of air travel with neonatal transport considerations.
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    Flight physiology: science of air travel with neonatal transport considerations.

    Adv Neonatal Care. 2010 Aug;10(4):196-9

    Authors: Schierholz E

    Abstract
    Air transportation, by rotor wing and fixed wing, is a frequent method of neonatal transportation. There are many risks involved in air transportation. It is well documented that the safety of rotor wing flights has been questioned. Fixed wing transport is viewed as a safer mode of transportation. Air transportation has risks other than vehicle accidents, and increasing altitude encountered in both fixed and rotor wing transportation can cause significant distress to both the transport crew and the patient. Knowledge and awareness of these risks by the flight team can help to alleviate unnecessary risks and complications encountered during air transportation and ensure a safe arrival of both the team and the patient.

    PMID: 20697218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • In flight auscultation: comparison of electronic and conventional stethoscopes.
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    In flight auscultation: comparison of electronic and conventional stethoscopes.

    Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Oct;29(8):932-5

    Authors: Tourtier JP, Fontaine E, Coste S, Ramsang S, Schiano P, Viaggi M, Libert N, Durand X, Chargari C, Borne M

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: The ability to auscultate during air medical transport is compromised by high ambient noise levels. The aim of this study was to assess the capabilities of a traditional and an amplified stethoscope (which is expected to reduce background and ambient noise) to assess heart and breath sounds during medical transport in a Falcon 50 plane.
    METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized study was performed. We tested 1 model of traditional stethoscope (Littman cardiology III) and 1 model of amplified stethoscope (Littman 3100). We studied heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard Falcon 50 (medically configured). For each, the quality of auscultation was described using a numeric rating scale (ranging from 0 to 10, with 0 corresponding to "I hear nothing" and 10 corresponding to "I hear perfectly"). Comparisons were accomplished using a t test for paired values.
    RESULTS: A total of 32 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the rating scale was 5.8 ± 1.5 and 6.4 ± 1.9, respectively, for the traditional and amplified stethoscope (P = .018). For lung sounds, quality of auscultation was estimated at 3.3 ± 2.4 for traditional stethoscope and at 3.7 ± 2.9 for amplified stethoscope (P = .15).
    CONCLUSIONS: Practicians in Falcon 50 are more able to hear cardiac sounds with an amplified than with a traditional stethoscope, whereas there is no significant difference concerning breath sounds auscultation.

    PMID: 20674225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Mental strain and annoyance during cognitive performance in different traffic noise conditions.
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    Mental strain and annoyance during cognitive performance in different traffic noise conditions.

    Ergonomics. 2010 Aug;53(8):962-71

    Authors: Sandrock S, Schutte M, Griefahn B

    Abstract
    In built-up areas, an increasing number of persons are affected by road traffic noise while performing mental work. This experimental study focused on annoyance and mental strain due to various noise scenarios. A total of 102 healthy, young persons (51 women, 51 men, aged 18-31 years) were randomly assigned to one of five experimental conditions determined by traffic flow (even, lumped) and traffic composition (20%, 40% heavy vehicles). While exposed to noise they performed a grammatical reasoning and a mathematical processing task. Performance and mental strain were not affected by any of the five noisy conditions. Individuals with high noise sensitivity were partially more annoyed and performed less than persons with low sensitivity. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present study provides information about mental strain due to tasks with different cognitive demands and the role of noise sensitivity in various traffic noise conditions. The results show that measures aiming at the reduction of the proportion of heavy vehicles should additionally consider particular traffic flow.

    PMID: 20658390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Auditory acuity for aircraft in real-world ambient environments.
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    Auditory acuity for aircraft in real-world ambient environments.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Jul;128(1):164-71

    Authors: Hoglund E, Brungart D, Iyer N, Hamil J, Mobley F, Hall J

    Abstract
    Although many psychoacoustic studies have been conducted to examine the detection of masked target sounds, the vast majority of these studies have been conducted in carefully controlled laboratory listening environments, and their results may not apply to the detection of real-world sounds in the presence of naturalistic ambient sound fields. Those studies that have examined the detection of realistic naturally-occurring sounds have been conducted in uncontrolled listening environments (i.e., outdoor listening tests) where the experimenters were unable to precisely control, or even measure, the specific characteristics of the target and masker at the time of the detection judgment. This study represents an attempt to bridge the gap between unrealistic laboratory listening studies and uncontrolled outdoor listening studies through the use of pseudorandomly-presented real world recordings of target and masking sounds. Subjects were asked to detect helicopter signals in the context of an ongoing ambient recording in a two interval detection task. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an aircraft sound varies across different types of ambient environments (i.e., rural, suburban, or urban).

    PMID: 20649211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise exposure and convertible cars.
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    Noise exposure and convertible cars.

    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Aug;143(2):219-22

    Authors: Michael P, Opie N, Smith M

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether drivers of convertible cars are exposed to excessive noise levels.
    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective.
    SETTING: Data were collected along a main United Kingdom highway.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seven cars were included within the study, encompassing a range in cost, power, and comfort. A calibrated, integrating noise meter was used to measure average noise levels (Leq dB) and peak levels (Lmax dB) encountered in the region of the driver's roadside ear with the convertible roof lowered. Readings were recorded at speeds of 50, 60, and 70 mph with the windows lowered and also at 70 mph with the windows raised.
    RESULTS: Noise levels for all testing conditions had a range for Leq of 82 dB to 92 dB, whereas the maximum Lmax level noted for articulated lorries was 99 dB.
    CONCLUSION: A minimal trend toward increasing noise levels with speed was noted for the speeds tested. A statistically significant difference in noise reduction was found by raising the car windows. Although average levels were noted to be above the 85 dB criterion level legislated by some organizations, the length and frequency of most car journeys with the convertible roof lowered is unlikely to significantly increase the noise exposure risk of most individuals. Future studies may be able to evaluate whether a temporary threshold shift phenomenon may occur.

    PMID: 20647123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Listen up: deafness and personal audio players.
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    Listen up: deafness and personal audio players.

    BMJ. 2010;341:c3539

    Authors: Iheanacho I

    PMID: 20610496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Can exposure to noise affect the 24 h blood pressure profile? Results from the HYENA study.
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    Can exposure to noise affect the 24 h blood pressure profile? Results from the HYENA study.

    J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Jun;65(6):535-41

    Authors: Haralabidis AS, Dimakopoulou K, Velonaki V, Barbaglia G, Mussin M, Giampaolo M, Selander J, Pershagen G, Dudley ML, Babisch W, Swart W, Katsouyanni K, Jarup L, HYENA Consortium

    Abstract
    UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE; To study the association between exposure to transportation noise and blood pressure (BP) reduction during nighttime sleep.
    METHODS: 24-h ambulatory BP measurements at 15-min intervals were carried out on 149 persons living near four major European airports. Noise indicators included total and source-specific equivalent indoor noise, total number of noise events, annoyance scores for aircraft and road traffic nighttime noise. Long-term noise exposure was also determined. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied.
    RESULTS: The pooled estimates show that the only noise indicator associated consistently with a decrease in BP dipping is road traffic noise. The effect shows that a 5 dB increase in measured road traffic noise during the study night is associated with 0.8% (-1.55, -0.05) less dipping in diastolic BP. Noise from aircraft was not associated with a decrease in dipping, except for a non-significant decrease noted in Athens, where the aircraft noise was higher. Noise from indoor sources did not affect BP dipping.
    CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic noise exposure may be associated with a decrease in dipping. Noise from aircraft was not found to affect dipping in a consistent way across centres and indoor noise was not associated with dipping.

    PMID: 20584724 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age.
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    Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age.

    Environ Int. 2010 Oct;36(7):683-9

    Authors: Tassi P, Rohmer O, Schimchowitsch S, Eschenlauer A, Bonnefond A, Margiocchi F, Poisson F, Muzet A

    Abstract
    Very few studies were devoted to permanent effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity. We investigated the effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular response in young and middle-aged adults living for many years either near a railway track or in a quiet area. Forty subjects (50% males) divided into two age groups (juniors: 26.2+/-3.6 and seniors: 56.2+/-4.2) participated in this experiment. Half of them lived near a railway track (RW group: 2.6 to 19 years) and the other half in a quiet environment (QE group: 8.1 to 14.2 years). After an adaptation night, all subjects underwent two nights in the laboratory: one control night and one noisy night (30 by-passes of a freight train). Sleep and cardiovascular modifications were assessed in response to noise. Sleep fragmentation indices were lower in RW subjects compared to QE whatever their age. In response to noise, there was a higher cardiovascular response rate to noise in RW juniors and a lower cardiovascular response rate in RW seniors compared to their age-paired QE counterparts. In conclusion, permanent exposure to nocturnal railway noise leads to decreased sleep fragmentation and to cardiovascular habituation. It is suggested that during the initial period experienced by residents living near railway tracks, nocturnal railway noise could induce a sensitization process on the autonomic response to noise reflecting a startle/defense reflex due to its functional significance, which progressively turns to habituation in the long-term if no adverse effect is experienced.

    PMID: 20569986 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • An investigation of community noise in high-rise residential environments.
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    An investigation of community noise in high-rise residential environments.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Jun;127(6):3511-8

    Authors: Alam SM, Eang LS, Tan A, Tiong TS

    Abstract
    High-rise dwellers in Singapore are often subjected to several community noise sources in close proximity. These include food center, children playground, soccer playground, basketball playground, waste disposal truck, etc. A scientific and reliable approach is required for evaluation of the community noise and its impact on high-rise dwellers. A comprehensive noise survey by a cluster sampling technique, conducted among 522 households in five residential towns in Singapore, showed that community noise was one of the prime sources of noise in a high-rise residential environment. From a subjective noise survey, undertaken concurrent with objective noise measurements, a mean outdoor noise level of 59 dBA was established as an acceptable noise level in the indoor environment. To investigate the level of noise exposure from different community noise sources, software modeling and simulations were carried out. The predicted results were validated with field measured data at five 16 story residential buildings. Analysis of noise exposure data showed that except for waste disposal truck, noise exposure due to other community noise sources (building distance of 15 m) were within the established acceptable noise level. A factor analysis of the survey data identified the key factors related to the disturbance due to community noise sources.

    PMID: 20550251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Predicting transmission of shaped sonic booms into a residential house structure.
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    Predicting transmission of shaped sonic booms into a residential house structure.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Jun;127(6):3347-55

    Authors: Sizov NV, Plotkin KJ, Hobbs CM

    Abstract
    Human perception of sonic booms is a major impediment to commercial supersonic flight. Shaping, which reduces the audible shock waves of a boom, can make outdoor perception of booms acceptable. Perception of sonic booms experienced indoors is of concern, and it is not yet established whether shaped booms offer benefit to indoor listeners. A better understanding of the transmission of shaped booms into building structures is needed. In the authors' earlier work the vibration response of house elements subjected to different sonic boom wave shapes was evaluated using a single degree of freedom model. This paper expands that approach with a modal analysis model. The acceleration of building elements and the resulting sound pressure inside a room are computed in the time and frequency domains. Analytical results are compared with experimental data measured by NASA during sonic boom tests conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in 2007. The effects of wave signature parameters on transmission are studied to evaluate the advantages of various kinds of minimized boom shapes.

    PMID: 20550235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Neurobehavioral effects of transportation noise in primary schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.
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    Neurobehavioral effects of transportation noise in primary schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Environ Health. 2010;9:25

    Authors: van Kempen E, van Kamp I, Lebret E, Lammers J, Emmen H, Stansfeld S

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Due to shortcomings in the design, no source-specific exposure-effect relations are as yet available describing the effects of noise on children's cognitive performance. This paper reports on a study investigating the effects of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on the cognitive performance of primary schoolchildren in both the home and the school setting.
    METHODS: Participants were 553 children (age 9-11 years) attending 24 primary schools around Schiphol Amsterdam Airport. Cognitive performance was measured by the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), and a set of paper-and-pencil tests. Multilevel regression analyses were applied to estimate the association between noise exposure and cognitive performance, accounting for demographic and school related confounders.
    RESULTS: Effects of school noise exposure were observed in the more difficult parts of the Switching Attention Test (SAT): children attending schools with higher road or aircraft noise levels made significantly more errors. The correlational pattern and factor structure of the data indicate that the coherence between the neurobehavioral tests and paper-and-pencil tests is high.
    CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study and previous scientific literature it can be concluded that performance on simple tasks is less susceptible to the effects of noise than performance on more complex tasks.

    PMID: 20515466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The influence of preconceptions on perceived sound reduction by environmental noise barriers.
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    The influence of preconceptions on perceived sound reduction by environmental noise barriers.

    Sci Total Environ. 2010 Sep 15;408(20):4368-75

    Authors: Joynt JL, Kang J

    Abstract
    The paper presents research that answers three main questions: (1) Do preconceptions held about the constituent materials of an environmental noise barrier affect how people perceive the barrier will perform at attenuating noise? (2) Does aesthetic preference influence the perception of how a barrier will perform? (3) Are barriers, which are deemed more aesthetically pleasing, more likely to be perceived as better noise attenuators? In a virtual reality setting with film to improve the contextual realism of the intersensory interaction test, participants were required to compare the perceived effectiveness of five standard 'in-situ' noise barriers, including concrete, timber, metal, transparent acrylic and a vegetative screen. The audio stimulus was held at a constant sound pressure level (SPL), whilst the visual stimulus changed, as the influential factor. As the noise levels projected during the study were held constant, it was possible to attribute the participants' perception of noise attenuation by the barriers, to preconceptions of how the varying barrier material would attenuate noise. There was also an inverse correlation between aesthetics and perception of how a noise barrier would perform. The transparent and deciduous vegetation barriers, judged most aesthetically pleasing, were judged as the least effective at attenuating noise.

    PMID: 20488508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Experimental studies on the effects of nocturnal noise on cortisol awakening response.
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    Experimental studies on the effects of nocturnal noise on cortisol awakening response.

    Noise Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;12(47):129-36

    Authors: Griefahn B, Robens S

    Abstract
    Cortisol awakening response (CAR), a considerable increase in cortisol concentrations post-awakening, is considered a reliable indicator of the reactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). As noise has been shown to activate the HPA-axis, this analysis focuses on CAR as a possible indicator of noise-induced sleep disturbances. This analysis focuses on CAR using two studies. In Study 1, six women and six men (18-26 years) slept for 13 nights each in the laboratory. They were exposed to the noises of three different trains, each with 20, 40 or 80 pass-bys, with equivalent noise levels varying between 44 and 58 dBA, on nine nights. In Study 2, 23 persons slept first for four nights and then four days, in the laboratory; finally 23 persons slept in the reverse order. During six sleep periods, they were randomly exposed to road or rail traffic noises with L Aeq varying between 42 and 56 dBA. To determine the CAR, salivary cortisol concentrations were ascertained in both studies after night sleep immediately after awakening, and 15 and 45 minutes later; in Study 2 also after 30 and 60 minutes later. The time of awakening was determined using the polysomnogram and the participants rated their subjective sleep quality every morning. Subjective sleep quality was rated worse after noisy when compared to quiet nights. CAR was, however, attenuated only after the noisiest nights in a subgroup of Study 2. These persons had just performed a sequence of four consecutive night shifts. They were obviously still in the process of re-adjustment to their usual day-oriented schedule and probably in a state of elevated vulnerability. The study concludes that nocturnal noise exposure affects the CAR only if a person is in a state of at least temporarily elevated vulnerability.

    PMID: 20472958 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.
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    The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.

    Noise Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;12(47):110-9

    Authors: Lercher P, Brink M, Rudisser J, Van Renterghem T, Botteldooren D, Baulac M, Defrance J

    Abstract
    In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643) we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A), Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A), Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A), Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

    PMID: 20472956 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.
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    Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.

    Noise Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;12(47):95-109

    Authors: Basner M, Griefahn B, Berg Mv

    Abstract
    There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data.

    PMID: 20472955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise exposure.
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    Sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise exposure.

    Noise Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;12(47):88-94

    Authors: Finegold LS

    Abstract
    Research on nighttime sleep disturbance due to community noise sources, particularly from exposure to aircraft noise, has been conducted for over a half decade. However, there are still no national environmental noise policies (i.e., laws and regulations) promulgated which prescribe a specific criterion for an exposure limit which is regulatory in nature. In the U.S., the new American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Noise Standard, ANSI S12.9-2008/Part 6, Quantities and Procedures for Description and Measurement of Environmental Sound - Part 6: Methods for Estimation of Awakenings Associated with Outdoor Noise Events Heard in Homes, does provide the currently recommended exposure-response relationship used in the U.S. In Europe, there has also been significant laboratory and field research on sleep disturbance, although the U.S. and European research publications often use different research methodologies, different noise metrics and different meta-analysis techniques. The current article will provide a brief overview of sleep disturbance research internationally to document the similarities and differences between the various research approaches and research results.

    PMID: 20472954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Nocturnal road traffic noise: A review on its assessment and consequences on sleep and health.
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    Nocturnal road traffic noise: A review on its assessment and consequences on sleep and health.

    Environ Int. 2010 Jul;36(5):492-8

    Authors: Pirrera S, De Valck E, Cluydts R

    Abstract
    Research on the impact of nocturnal road traffic noise on sleep and the consequences on daytime functioning demonstrates detrimental effects that cannot be ignored. The physiological reactions due to continuing noise processing during night time lead to primary sleep disturbances, which in turn impair daytime functioning. This review focuses on noise processing in general and in relation to sleep, as well as methodological aspects in the study of noise and sleep. More specifically, the choice of a research setting and noise assessment procedure is discussed and the concept of sleep quality is elaborated. In assessing sleep disturbances, we differentiate between objectively measured and subjectively reported complaints, which demonstrates the need for further understanding of the impact of noise on several sleep variables. Hereby, mediating factors such as noise sensitivity appear to play an important role. Research on long term effects of noise intrusion on sleep up till now has mainly focused on cardiovascular outcomes. The domain might benefit from additional longitudinal studies on deleterious effects of noise on mental health and general well-being.

    PMID: 20406712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Are urban noise pollution levels decreasing?
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    Are urban noise pollution levels decreasing?

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Apr;127(4):2107-9

    Authors: Arana M

    Abstract
    The majority of acoustic impact studies developed over the last 50 years have used a similar acoustic parameter (L(eq), L(dn)) but the noise mapping methodology has been very uneven. The selection of the measurement points, the measurement periods, or the evaluation indices have not followed a unique criterion. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the sound pollution levels between different cities from those studies, at least in a rigorous sense. Even more, different studies carried out in the same city by different researchers during different years and using different methodologies are not conclusive whether the acoustic pollution increases or decreases. The present paper shows results, with statistical significance, about the evolution of the acoustic pollution obtained for two Spanish cities, Pamplona and Madrid. In both cases, it can be concluded that noise pollution decreases over time (P<0.01).

    PMID: 20369990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effect of buildings on acoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment.
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    The effect of buildings on acoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Mar;127(3):1335-46

    Authors: Albert DG, Liu L

    Abstract
    Experimental measurements were conducted using acoustic pulse sources in a full-scale artificial village to investigate the reverberation, scattering, and diffraction produced as acoustic waves interact with buildings. These measurements show that a simple acoustic source pulse is transformed into a complex signature when propagating through this environment, and that diffraction acts as a low-pass filter on the acoustic pulse. Sensors located in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) positions usually recorded lower positive pressure maxima than sensors in line-of-sight positions. Often, the first arrival on a NLOS sensor located around a corner was not the largest arrival, as later reflection arrivals that traveled longer distances without diffraction had higher amplitudes. The waveforms are of such complexity that human listeners have difficulty identifying replays of the signatures generated by a single pulse, and the usual methods of source location based on the direction of arrivals may fail in many cases. Theoretical calculations were performed using a two-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and compared to the measurements. The predicted peak positive pressure agreed well with the measured amplitudes for all but two sensor locations directly behind buildings, where the omission of rooftop ray paths caused the discrepancy. The FDTD method also produced good agreement with many of the measured waveform characteristics.

    PMID: 20329833 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Determining the direction of causality between psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance.
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    Determining the direction of causality between psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance.

    Noise Health. 2010 Jan-Mar;12(46):17-25

    Authors: Kroesen M, Molin EJ, van Wee B

    Abstract
    In this paper, an attempt is made to establish the direction of causality between a range of psychological factors and aircraft noise annoyance. For this purpose, a panel model was estimated within a structural equation modeling approach. Data were gathered from two surveys conducted in April 2006 and April 2008, respectively, among the same residents living within the 45 Level day-evening-night contour of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, the largest airport in the Netherlands (n=250). A surprising result is that none of the paths from the psychological factors to aircraft noise annoyance were found to be significant. Yet 2 effects were significant the other way around: (1) from 'aircraft noise annoyance' to 'concern about the negative health effects of noise' and (2) from 'aircraft noise annoyance' to 'belief that noise can be prevented.' Hence aircraft noise annoyance measured at time 1 contained information that can effectively explain changes in these 2 variables at time 2, while controlling for their previous values. Secondary results show that (1) aircraft noise annoyance is very stable through time and (2) that changes in aircraft noise annoyance and the identified psychological factors are correlated.

    PMID: 20160387 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance.
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    The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance.

    Noise Health. 2010 Jan-Mar;12(46):7-16

    Authors: Schreckenberg D, Griefahn B, Meis M

    Abstract
    One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years) were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic), perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations) and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic) rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general.

    PMID: 20160386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.
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    Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    Noise Health. 2010 Jan-Mar;12(46):1-6

    Authors: Bronzaft AL

    Abstract
    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

    PMID: 20160385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on cognitive performance in the following morning: dose-response relationships in laboratory and field.
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    Effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on cognitive performance in the following morning: dose-response relationships in laboratory and field.

    Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010 Oct;83(7):743-51

    Authors: Elmenhorst EM, Elmenhorst D, Wenzel J, Quehl J, Mueller U, Maass H, Vejvoda M, Basner M

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal aircraft noise disturbs sleep and impairs recuperation. We investigated in laboratory and field studies whether noise-induced sleep fragmentation is associated with performance impairments in a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and a memory search task.
    METHODS: In the laboratory, 112 participants were exposed to aircraft noise during 9 consecutive nights. In the field, 64 participants were examined during 9 consecutive nights in the vicinity of Cologne/Bonn airport. Reaction time, signal detection performance and subjective task load were recorded.
    RESULTS: Dose-response relationships showed significant, linear impairments in reaction times. In the laboratory, reaction time in PVT increased with 0.13 ms/dB equivalent noise level (LAeq) plus 0.02 ms/noise event. In the field study, reaction time increased with 0.3 ms/dB LAeq. Participants worked significantly less accurate after nocturnal noise exposure.
    CONCLUSION: Influences of LAeq and number of noise events on daytime performance were small but consistent and significant, stressing the potential public health impact of nocturnal noise exposure.

    PMID: 20143082 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise-induced annoyance from transportation noise: short-term responses to a single noise source in a laboratory.
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    Noise-induced annoyance from transportation noise: short-term responses to a single noise source in a laboratory.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2010 Feb;127(2):804-14

    Authors: Kim J, Lim C, Hong J, Lee S

    Abstract
    An experimental study was performed to compare the annoyances from civil-aircraft noise, military-aircraft noise, railway noise, and road-traffic noise. Two-way within-subjects designs were applied in this research. Fifty-two subjects, who were naive listeners, were given various stimuli with varying levels through a headphone in an anechoic chamber. Regardless of the frequency weighting network, even under the same average energy level, civil-aircraft noise was the most annoying, followed by military-aircraft noise, railway noise, and road-traffic noise. In particular, penalties in the time-averaged, A-weighted sound level (TAL) of about 8, 5, and 5 dB, respectively, were found in the civil-aircraft, military-aircraft, and railway noises. The reason could be clarified through the high-frequency component and the variability in the level. When people were exposed to sounds with the same maximum A-weighted level, a railway bonus of about 3 dB was found. However, transportation noise has been evaluated by the time-averaged A-weighted level in most countries. Therefore, in the present situation, the railway bonus is not acceptable for railway vehicles with diesel-electric engines.

    PMID: 20136203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Community response to environmental noise and the impact on cardiovascular risk score.
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    Community response to environmental noise and the impact on cardiovascular risk score.

    Sci Total Environ. 2010 Feb 15;408(6):1264-70

    Authors: Sobotova L, Jurkovicova J, Stefanikova Z, Sevcikova L, Aghova L

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate and evaluate the relationship between road traffic noise and cardiovascular risk.
    METHODS: The study sample (n=659; 36.9% male, 63.1% female university students, mean age 22.83+/-1.58 years) included a group exposed to road traffic noise (n=280, L(eq,24h)=67+/-2dB(A)) and a control group (n=379, L(eq,24h)=58.7+/-6dB(A)). Subjective response was determined by a validated noise annoyance questionnaire. The ten year risk of developing a coronary heart disease event was quantified as an evaluation of cardiovascular risk (SCORE60, Framingham 10-year risk estimation and projection to the age of 60, relative risk SCORE chart).
    RESULTS: Cardiovascular risk scores were significantly higher in the exposed group based on the Framingham scores projected to the age of 60, SCORE60 (AOR=2.72 (95% CI=1.21-6.15)) and the relative risk SCORE chart (AOR=2.81 (1.46-5.41)).
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the association between road traffic noise and cardiovascular risk.

    PMID: 20060571 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Impact of transport and industrial emissions on the ambient air quality of Lahore City, Pakistan.
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    Impact of transport and industrial emissions on the ambient air quality of Lahore City, Pakistan.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2010 Dec;171(1-4):353-63

    Authors: Ali M, Athar M

    Abstract
    Lahore's population is growing at a rate of 4% a year. It is widely perceived that because of this rapid growth, the level of services provided to the city's 7 million inhabitants has substantially deteriorated. This study presents the finding of ambient air quality monitoring carried out in Lahore City, Pakistan. The ambient air quality was monitored for criteria pollutants carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (TSP and PM(10)), lead (Pb), and noise level at ten different locations of the city. The sampling locations were selected in a way to draw a representative profile of air quality, covering both newly developed as well as highly congested urban centers. The sulfur dioxide, lead, and suspended particulate concentration was found very high as compared to the ambient air quality standards of US Environmental Protection Agency and WHO guidelines. The 24-h average noise was exceeding the WHO limits at majority of the locations. The study presents the severity of air pollution in Lahore City, and findings would help city management to develop monitoring and mitigation measures to improve the air quality of the city.

    PMID: 20052613 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Impact of road traffic noise annoyance on health-related quality of life: results from a population-based study.
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    Impact of road traffic noise annoyance on health-related quality of life: results from a population-based study.

    Qual Life Res. 2010 Feb;19(1):37-46

    Authors: Dratva J, Zemp E, Felber Dietrich D, Bridevaux PO, Rochat T, Schindler C, Gerbase MW

    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To estimate the impact of traffic-related noise annoyance on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in a population-based study and potential effect modification by gender.
    METHODS: The study included 5,021 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study of Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults second survey. The association between traffic-related noise annoyance, measured on an 11-point scale, and HrQoL, based on SF-36 scores, was investigated by multivariate regression analysis. Effect sizes were calculated, and interactions by gender and chronic disease status examined.
    RESULTS: Thirteen percentage of the study population reported high annoyance due to traffic. Women were more likely to report high noise annoyance (adjOR 1.23; 95%CI 1.01-1.48). Except for general health, all SF-36 scores showed a significant negative association with noise annoyance. The respective effect sizes ranged between 0.13 and 0.54. Significant effect modification by gender and chronic disease status was present in specific SF-36 domains.
    CONCLUSION: This paper presents first evidence of an inverse relationship of noise annoyance and HrQoL in a general population. Although the estimated effects are small to moderate for individuals, they may add up to a relevant public health impact.

    PMID: 20044782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular responses to railway noise during sleep in young and middle-aged adults.
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    Cardiovascular responses to railway noise during sleep in young and middle-aged adults.

    Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Mar;108(4):671-80

    Authors: Tassi P, Saremi M, Schimchowitsch S, Eschenlauer A, Rohmer O, Muzet A

    Abstract
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nocturnal railway noise on cardiovascular reactivity in young (25.8 +/- 2.6 years) and middle-aged (52.2 +/- 2.5 years) adults during sleep. Thirty-eight subjects slept three nights in the laboratory at 1-week interval. They were exposed to 48 randomized pass-bys of Freight, Passenger and Automotive trains either at an 8-h equivalent sound level of 40 dBA (Moderate) and 50 dBA (High) or at a silent Control night. Heart rate response (HRR), heart response amplitude (HRA), heart response latency (HRL) and finger pulse response (FPR), finger pulse amplitude (FPA) and finger pulse latency (FPL) were recorded to measure cardiovascular reactivity after each noise onset and for time-matched pseudo-noises in the control condition. Results show that Freight trains produced the highest cardiac response (increased HRR, HRA and HRL) compared to Passenger and Automotive. But the vascular response was similar whatever the type of train. Juniors exhibited an increased HRR and HRA as compared to seniors, but there was no age difference on vasoconstriction, except a shorter FPL in seniors. Noise level produced dose-dependent effects on all the cardiovascular indices. Sleep stage at noise occurrence was ineffective for cardiac response, but FPA was reduced when noise occurred during REM sleep. In conclusion, our study is in favor of an important impact of nocturnal railway noise on the cardiovascular system of sleeping subjects. In the limit of the samples studied, Freight trains are the most harmful, probably more because of their special length (duration) than because of their speed (rise time).

    PMID: 19902241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Markov processes for the prediction of aircraft noise effects on sleep.
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    Markov processes for the prediction of aircraft noise effects on sleep.

    Med Decis Making. 2010 Mar-Apr;30(2):275-89

    Authors: Basner M, Siebert U

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Aircraft noise disturbs sleep and impairs recuperation. Authorities plan to expand Frankfurt airport.
    OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess the effects of a traffic curfew (11 PM to 5 AM) at Frankfurt Airport on sleep structure.
    DESIGN: Experimental sleep study; polysomnography for 13 consecutive nights.
    SETTING: Sleep laboratory. Subjects. 128 healthy subjects, mean age (SD) 38 (13) years, range 19 to 65, 59% female. Intervention. Exposure to aircraft noise via loudspeakers.
    MEASUREMENTS: A 6-state Markov state transition sleep model was used to simulate 3 noise scenarios with first-order Monte Carlo simulations: 1) 2005 traffic at Frankfurt Airport, 2) as simulation 1 but flights between 11 PM and 5 AM cancelled, and 3) as simulation 2, with flights between 11 PM and 5 AM from simulation 1 rescheduled to periods before 11 PM and after 5 AM. Probabilities for transitions between sleep stages were estimated with autoregressive multinomial logistic regression.
    RESULTS: Compared to a night without curfew, models indicate small improvements in sleep structure in nights with curfew, even if all traffic is rescheduled to periods before and after the curfew period. For those who go to bed before 10:30 PM or after 1 AM, this benefit is likely to be offset by the expected increase of air traffic during late evening and early morning hours. Limitations. Limited ecologic validity due to laboratory setting and subject sample.
    CONCLUSIONS: According to the decision analysis, it is unlikely that the proposed curfew at Frankfurt Airport substantially benefits sleep structure. Extensions of the model could be used to evaluate or propose alternative air traffic regulation strategies for Frankfurt Airport.

    PMID: 19684289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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