Studien 2009

pubmed: studien aus 2009

NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=((((Noise, Transportation[MeSH Terms]) OR transportation noise[MeSH Terms]) OR aircraft noise[Title]) AND Humans[MeSH Terms]) AND ("2009/01/01"[PDAT] : "2009/12/31"[PDAT])
  • [Analysis of the extra-aural dependence of hearing disorders in civic flight personnel].
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    [Analysis of the extra-aural dependence of hearing disorders in civic flight personnel].

    Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2009 Sep-Oct;43(5):23-7

    Authors: Gofman VR, Mil'kov AA

    Abstract
    The correlation of incidence of hearing loss and concomitant pathologies in civil pilots with auditory analyzer sensitivity to aviation noise and length of service was investigated with the use of two-factor variance analysis w/o repetition. As a result of screening, 335 people (group-1) had only trace of audiometric noise impact; 108 people (group-2) displayed a sustained loss of hearing (chronic sensorineural hearing loss). In the aggregate, data of the investigation evidences that incidence of cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis of aorta and coronary arteries, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis) and sensorineural hearing loss depend reliably on both individual sensitivity to noise and length of service. As for other pathologies, none of factorial criteria revealed itself as the categorical cause of a pathology. The significance and unit input of causative factor into health disorders vary as in type of non-auditory pathology, so length of flight service, and suggest linkage with the time of incipient loss of hearing. The flight personnel with low noise sensitivity and sustained deafness were diagnosed for a broader variety of extra-aural pathologies than the group with incipient hearing disorders. Variation analysis w/o repetition is applicable to evaluation of the risks of somatic pathologies in flight personnel.

    PMID: 20120912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Assessment of a risk from aviation noise exposure to the population's health].
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    [Assessment of a risk from aviation noise exposure to the population's health].

    Gig Sanit. 2009 Sep-Oct;(5):29-31

    Authors: Fokin MV, Novikov SM, Bespalov MS, Reteium AIu, Oseledets EIu, Prokopenko LV, Pal'tsev IuP, Uspenskaia TM

    Abstract
    The paper gives an algorithm, a procedure for calculation of aircraft noise, and its spread modeling. The performed investigations have provided guidelines that will become the first Russian official guiding document for assessing a risk from aviation noise to human health.

    PMID: 20050061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Evaluation of physical exposures of motor transport during hygienic examination of design materials to establish the size of a sanitary break].
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    [Evaluation of physical exposures of motor transport during hygienic examination of design materials to establish the size of a sanitary break].

    Gig Sanit. 2009 Sep-Oct;(5):20-2

    Authors: Budarina OV, Sabirova ZF, Zabrodova NN, Ul'ianova AV

    Abstract
    The paper presents the results of assessing the conformity of building, reconstruction, and highway maintenance with the standards, by establishing the size of a sanitary break during examination of design materials in case of the Saint Petersburg ring road, the West high-speed diameter, E-18 Scandinavia, surface high-speed line passenger railway routes in Saint Petersburg, etc.

    PMID: 20050059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Saliva cortisol and exposure to aircraft noise in six European countries.
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    Saliva cortisol and exposure to aircraft noise in six European countries.

    Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1713-7

    Authors: Selander J, Bluhm G, Theorell T, Pershagen G, Babisch W, Seiffert I, Houthuijs D, Breugelmans O, Vigna-Taglianti F, Antoniotti MC, Velonakis E, Davou E, Dudley ML, Järup L, HYENA Consortium

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones.
    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise.
    METHOD: A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day.
    RESULTS: We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32-9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (L(Aeq,24h)) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to L(Aeq,24h) < or = 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects.

    PMID: 20049122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Assessment of noise and associated health impacts at selected secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria.
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    Assessment of noise and associated health impacts at selected secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    J Environ Public Health. 2009;2009:739502

    Authors: Ana GR, Shendell DG, Brown GE, Sridhar MK

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects.
    METHODS: For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes.
    RESULTS: Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3-84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems.
    CONCLUSION: Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources.

    PMID: 20041025 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Cardiovascular responses to railway noise during sleep in young and middle-aged adults.
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    Cardiovascular responses to railway noise during sleep in young and middle-aged adults.

    Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Mar;108(4):671-80

    Authors: Tassi P, Saremi M, Schimchowitsch S, Eschenlauer A, Rohmer O, Muzet A

    Abstract
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nocturnal railway noise on cardiovascular reactivity in young (25.8 +/- 2.6 years) and middle-aged (52.2 +/- 2.5 years) adults during sleep. Thirty-eight subjects slept three nights in the laboratory at 1-week interval. They were exposed to 48 randomized pass-bys of Freight, Passenger and Automotive trains either at an 8-h equivalent sound level of 40 dBA (Moderate) and 50 dBA (High) or at a silent Control night. Heart rate response (HRR), heart response amplitude (HRA), heart response latency (HRL) and finger pulse response (FPR), finger pulse amplitude (FPA) and finger pulse latency (FPL) were recorded to measure cardiovascular reactivity after each noise onset and for time-matched pseudo-noises in the control condition. Results show that Freight trains produced the highest cardiac response (increased HRR, HRA and HRL) compared to Passenger and Automotive. But the vascular response was similar whatever the type of train. Juniors exhibited an increased HRR and HRA as compared to seniors, but there was no age difference on vasoconstriction, except a shorter FPL in seniors. Noise level produced dose-dependent effects on all the cardiovascular indices. Sleep stage at noise occurrence was ineffective for cardiac response, but FPA was reduced when noise occurred during REM sleep. In conclusion, our study is in favor of an important impact of nocturnal railway noise on the cardiovascular system of sleeping subjects. In the limit of the samples studied, Freight trains are the most harmful, probably more because of their special length (duration) than because of their speed (rise time).

    PMID: 19902241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Engineering modeling of traffic noise in shielded areas in cities.
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    Engineering modeling of traffic noise in shielded areas in cities.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Nov;126(5):2340-9

    Authors: Salomons EM, Polinder H, Lohman WJ, Zhou H, Borst HC, Miedema HM

    Abstract
    A computational study of road traffic noise in cities is presented. Based on numerical boundary-element calculations of canyon-to-canyon propagation, an efficient engineering algorithm is developed to calculate the effect of multiple reflections in street canyons. The algorithm is supported by a room-acoustical analysis of the reverberant sound fields in the source and receiver canyons. Using the algorithm, a simple model for traffic noise in cities is developed. Noise maps and exposure distributions of the city of Amsterdam are calculated with the model, and for comparison also with an engineering model that is currently used for traffic noise impact assessments in cities. Considerable differences between the two model predictions are found for shielded buildings with day-evening-night levels of 40-60 dB at the facades. Further, an analysis is presented of level differences between the most and the least exposed facades of buildings. Large level differences are found for buildings directly exposed to traffic noise from nearby roads. It is shown that by a redistribution of traffic flow around these buildings, one can achieve low sound levels at quiet sides and a corresponding reduction in the percentage of highly annoyed inhabitants from typically 23% to 18%.

    PMID: 19894817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Acoustic intensity-based method for sound radiations in a uniform flow.
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    Acoustic intensity-based method for sound radiations in a uniform flow.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Nov;126(5):2198-205

    Authors: Yu C, Zhou Z, Zhuang M

    Abstract
    An acoustic intensity-based method (AIBM) is extended and verified for predicting sound radiation in a subsonic uniform flow. The method assumes that the acoustic propagation is governed by the modified Helmholtz equation on and outside of a control surface, which encloses all the noise sources and nonlinear effects. With acoustic pressure derivative and its co-located acoustic pressure as input from an open control surface, the unique solution of the modified Helmholtz equation is obtained by solving the least squares problem. The AIBM is coupled with near-field Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)/Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) methods to predict sound radiation of model aeroacoustic problems. The effectiveness of this hybrid approach has been demonstrated by examples of both tonal and broadband noise. Since the AIBM method is stable and accurate based on the input acoustic data from an open surface in a radiated field, it is therefore advantageous for the far-field prediction of aerodynamics noise propagation when an acoustic input from a closed control surface, like the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings surface, is not available [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 264, 321-342 (1969)].

    PMID: 19894800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Brainstem evoked response in bus drivers with noise-induced hearing loss.
    Related Articles

    Brainstem evoked response in bus drivers with noise-induced hearing loss.

    Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Sep-Oct;75(5):753-9

    Authors: Santos AS, Castro Júnior Nd

    Abstract
    UNLABELLED: Studies carried out by Brainstem Evoked Auditory Potentials (BEAP) in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) workers show different results in relation to neuronal involvement, not involving bus drivers as study object.
    AIM: to use BEAP in a prospective case/control clinical study to check whether or not there is neural auditory pathway involvement in bus drivers with NIHL.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: we selected 50 bus drivers between 27 and 40 years with mild to moderate NIHL, and 20 individuals between 29 and 40 years with normal hearing and without prior history of noise exposure. BEAP tests were carried out and the traces were analyzed.
    RESULTS: in the NIHL group, the auditory thresholds in 3, 4 and 6 kHz were significantly higher in the left ear. In the NIHL group, potentials PI, PIII and/or PV were not present in a small number of the individuals; we observed a statistically significant increase in PI, PIII and PV absolute latencies, (LIP) LIP I-III interpeak latencies, bilaterally and LIP I-V in the left ear.
    CONCLUSION: in the NIHL group, besides sensorial injury, changes in BEAP latencies suggest an early functional injury of the first auditory pathway afferent neuron.

    PMID: 19893947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Blink rate during tests of executive performance after nocturnal traffic noise.
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    Blink rate during tests of executive performance after nocturnal traffic noise.

    Noise Health. 2009 Oct-Dec;11(45):217-22

    Authors: Breimhorst M, Marks A, Robens S, Griefahn B

    Abstract
    This analysis is on the hypothesis that nocturnal traffic noise affects sleep quality whereas performance decrement is avoided by increased effort expressed by a decrease in blink rates (BRs) during a visual task. Twenty-four persons (12 women, 12 men; 19-28 years, 23.56+/-2.49 years) slept during three consecutive weeks in the laboratory while exposed to road, rail, or aircraft noise with weekly permuted changes. Each week consisted of a random sequence of a quiet night (32 dBA) and three nights with equivalent noise levels of 39, 44 and 50 dBA respectively. The polysomnogram was recorded during all nights. Every morning the participants rated their sleep quality and then completed two executive tasks (Go/Nogo-, Switch-task). Neither of the two performance tests was affected by nocturnal noise. Sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality decreased with increasing noise levels but were not associated with the type of noise. In contrast, BRs were associated with the type of noise, not with noise levels. The results do not support the hypothesis concerning the BR. The possible reasons are discussed. However, the results do not exclude that other physiological parameters such as heart rate or brain potentials measured during the tests might have revealed alterations associated with nocturnal noise exposure.

    PMID: 19805931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading and mathematical performance.
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    Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading and mathematical performance.

    Noise Health. 2009 Oct-Dec;11(45):194-8

    Authors: Ljung R, Sörqvist P, Hygge S

    Abstract
    Irrelevant speech in classrooms and road traffic noise adjacent to schools have a substantial impact on children's ability to learn. Comparing the effects of different noise sources on learning may help construct guidelines for noise abatement programs. Experimental studies are important to establish dose-response relationships and to expand our knowledge beyond correlation studies. This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning. A total of 187 pupils (89 girls and 98 boys), 12-13 years old, were tested in their ordinary classrooms. Road traffic noise was found to impair reading speed (P<0.01) and basic mathematics (P<0.05). No effect was found on reading comprehension or on mathematical reasoning. Irrelevant speech did not disrupt performance on any task. These findings are related to previous research on noise in schools and the implications for noise abatement guidelines are discussed.

    PMID: 19805928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Development of a noise prediction model under interrupted traffic flow conditions: a case study for Jaipur city.
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    Development of a noise prediction model under interrupted traffic flow conditions: a case study for Jaipur city.

    Noise Health. 2009 Oct-Dec;11(45):189-93

    Authors: Agarwal S, Swami BL, Gupta AB

    Abstract
    The objective of this study is to develop an empirical noise prediction model for the evaluation of equivalent noise levels (Leq) under interrupted traffic flow conditions. A new factor tendency to blow horn (AH) was introduced in the conventional federal highway administrative noise prediction (FHWA) model and a comparative study was made between FHWA and modified FHWA models to evaluate the best suitability of the model. Monitoring and modeling of Leq were carried out at four selected intersections of Jaipur city. After comparison of the results, it was found that the modified FHWA model could be satisfactorily applied for Indian conditions as it gives acceptable results with a deviation of +/-3 dB (A). In addition, statistical analysis of the data comprising measured and estimated values shows a good agreement. Hence, the modified FHWA traffic noise prediction model can be applied to the cities having similar traffic conditions as in Jaipur city.

    PMID: 19805927 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of traffic noise on sleep in an urban population.
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    Effects of traffic noise on sleep in an urban population.

    Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009 Sep;60(3):335-42

    Authors: Stosić L, Belojević G, Milutinović S

    Abstract
    Urban noise is an important environmental stressor, and sleep disturbance is its major health effect. Substantial inter-individual variance in these effects might partly be explained by different sensitivity to noise. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of urban noise on sleep and the relation between self-estimated sensitivity to noise and sleep disturbance. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed on 911 adult residents of Nis, Serbia, of whom 388 were men (42.6 %) and 523 women (57.4 %). The streets were regarded as noisy if night equivalent noise level (Leq) was higher than 45 dB(A) and quiet if night Leq was < or =45 dB(A). Noise sensitivity was measured with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale. The study showed that respondents from noisy area significantly more often reported difficulty in falling asleep, being woken up, poor sleep quality, tiredness after sleep, and use of sleep medication than residents from quiet streets (p<0.001). Noise sensitivity significantly correlated with sleep disturbances (p<0.001).

    PMID: 19789163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Analysis and evaluation of soundscapes in public parks through interviews and measurement of noise.
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    Analysis and evaluation of soundscapes in public parks through interviews and measurement of noise.

    Sci Total Environ. 2009 Dec 1;407(24):6143-9

    Authors: Szeremeta B, Zannin PH

    Abstract
    The purpose of this work was to investigate the sound environment of public parks using a soundscape study model that analyzes not only noise but also all the types of sound of a given area, as well as other environmental factors. To this end, acoustic measurements were made in the parks under study and interviews were held with their frequent visitors. Noise measurements were conducted in 55 points, and a total of 335 people were interviewed in the 4 parks studied. The parks selected for this study are located in areas very close to streets with intense vehicle flow, raising the hypothesis that this proximity impairs the acoustic comfort of their visitors. The findings confirm the strong influence of traffic noise on the soundscapes of the parks. Noise measurements showed that in all parks, between 50 and 100% of the points evaluated displayed sound levels above 55dB(A), the level established by Curitiba's Municipal Law 10625 as the limit permitted for green areas during daytime. Other conditions in the parks' environments were also identified, which interfere jointly in the soundscape and in its perception, such as spatial factors of each park, the urban setting of its surroundings, and the sounds originating inside the parks.

    PMID: 19786294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden.
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    Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden.

    Environ Health. 2009;8:38

    Authors: Bodin T, Albin M, Ardö J, Stroh E, Ostergren PO, Björk J

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Results from studies of road traffic noise and hypertension are heterogeneous with respect to effect size, effects among males and females and with respect to effects across age groups. Our objective was to further explore these associations.
    METHODS: The study used cross-sectional public health survey data from southern Sweden, including 24,238 adults (18 - 80 years old). We used a geographic information system (GIS) to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr) at the current residential address. Effects on self-reported hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, alcohol intake, exercise, education, smoking and socioeconomic status.
    RESULTS: Modest exposure effects (OR approximately 1.1) were generally noted in intermediate exposure categories (45 -64 dB(A)), and with no obvious trend. The effect was more pronounced at > 64 dB(A) (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04 - 2.02). Age modified the relative effect (p = 0.018). An effect was seen among middle-aged (40 - 59 years old) at noise levels 60 - 64 dB(A) (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.58)) and at > 64 dB(A) (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.19 - 3.06)). An effect was also indicated among younger adults but not among elderly. No apparent effect modification by gender, country of origin, disturbed sleep or strained economy was noted.
    CONCLUSION: The study supports an association between road traffic noise at high average levels and self-reported hypertension in middle-aged. Future studies should use age group -specific relative effect models to account for differences in prevalence.

    PMID: 19744313 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Role of mask pattern in intelligibility of ideal binary-masked noisy speech.
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    Role of mask pattern in intelligibility of ideal binary-masked noisy speech.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Sep;126(3):1415-26

    Authors: Kjems U, Boldt JB, Pedersen MS, Lunner T, Wang D

    Abstract
    Intelligibility of ideal binary masked noisy speech was measured on a group of normal hearing individuals across mixture signal to noise ratio (SNR) levels, masker types, and local criteria for forming the binary mask. The binary mask is computed from time-frequency decompositions of target and masker signals using two different schemes: an ideal binary mask computed by thresholding the local SNR within time-frequency units and a target binary mask computed by comparing the local target energy against the long-term average speech spectrum. By depicting intelligibility scores as a function of the difference between mixture SNR and local SNR threshold, alignment of the performance curves is obtained for a large range of mixture SNR levels. Large intelligibility benefits are obtained for both sparse and dense binary masks. When an ideal mask is dense with many ones, the effect of changing mixture SNR level while fixing the mask is significant, whereas for more sparse masks the effect is small or insignificant.

    PMID: 19739755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Blood pressure of 8-14 year old children in relation to traffic noise at home--results of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV).
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    Blood pressure of 8-14 year old children in relation to traffic noise at home--results of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV).

    Sci Total Environ. 2009 Nov 1;407(22):5839-43

    Authors: Babisch W, Neuhauser H, Thamm M, Seiwert M

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: The German Environment Agency carried out its fourth German Environmental Survey (GerES IV) from 2003 to 2006, which was especially for children. 1048 children, 8-14 years of age, were randomly selected from all over Germany. The sample is representative of children in this age group living in Germany with respect to gender, community size, and region.
    METHODS: Blood pressure was measured under standardized conditions at clinical study centers. During home visits the children and their parents were asked about leisure activities, housing conditions and environmental factors, including traffic exposure of their homes. Orientating short-term noise measurements were carried out in front of the children's (bed-) room to validate the subjective ratings of the traffic volume (categories: no street, low, moderately, high/extremely high).
    RESULTS: With respect to the subjective rating of "type of street" (traffic volume) the lowest blood pressure readings were found in children whose room was facing a street with 'low traffic'. The highest readings were found in the group where the children's rooms were facing a street with a 'high or extremely high traffic' volume. The difference between the two groups was 1.8mm Hg (95% CI: 0.1 to 3.5, p=0.036) for systolic and 1.0mm Hg (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.4, p=0.148) for diastolic blood pressure. With respect to the short-term noise measurements, significant blood pressure increases of 1.0mm Hg (95% CI: 0.3 to 1.6, p=0.004) and 0.6mm Hg (95% CI: 0.1 to 1.2, p=0.025), respectively, were found per 10 dB(A) increment of the noise level.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results show that road traffic noise at home is a stressor that could affect children's blood pressure.

    PMID: 19729190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Annoyance due to aircraft noise has increased over the years--results of the HYENA study.
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    Annoyance due to aircraft noise has increased over the years--results of the HYENA study.

    Environ Int. 2009 Nov;35(8):1169-76

    Authors: Babisch W, Houthuijs D, Pershagen G, Cadum E, Katsouyanni K, Velonakis M, Dudley ML, Marohn HD, Swart W, Breugelmans O, Bluhm G, Selander J, Vigna-Taglianti F, Pisani S, Haralabidis A, Dimakopoulou K, Zachos I, Järup L, HYENA Consortium

    Abstract
    In the HYENA study (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports) noise annoyances due to aircraft and road traffic noise were assessed in subjects that lived in the vicinity of 6 major European airports using the 11-point ICBEN scale (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise). A distinction was made between the annoyance during the day and during the night. L(den) and L(night) were considered as indicators of noise exposure. Pooled data analyses showed clear exposure-response relationships between the noise level and the noise annoyance for both exposures. The exposure-response curves for road noise were congruent with the EU standard curves used for predicting the number of highly noise annoyed subjects in European communities. Annoyance ratings due to aircraft noise, however, were higher than predicted by the EU standard curves. The data supports other findings suggesting that the people's attitude towards aircraft noise has changed over the years, and that the EU standard curve for aircraft noise should be modified.

    PMID: 19699524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Markov processes for the prediction of aircraft noise effects on sleep.
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    Markov processes for the prediction of aircraft noise effects on sleep.

    Med Decis Making. 2010 Mar-Apr;30(2):275-89

    Authors: Basner M, Siebert U

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Aircraft noise disturbs sleep and impairs recuperation. Authorities plan to expand Frankfurt airport.
    OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess the effects of a traffic curfew (11 PM to 5 AM) at Frankfurt Airport on sleep structure.
    DESIGN: Experimental sleep study; polysomnography for 13 consecutive nights.
    SETTING: Sleep laboratory. Subjects. 128 healthy subjects, mean age (SD) 38 (13) years, range 19 to 65, 59% female. Intervention. Exposure to aircraft noise via loudspeakers.
    MEASUREMENTS: A 6-state Markov state transition sleep model was used to simulate 3 noise scenarios with first-order Monte Carlo simulations: 1) 2005 traffic at Frankfurt Airport, 2) as simulation 1 but flights between 11 PM and 5 AM cancelled, and 3) as simulation 2, with flights between 11 PM and 5 AM from simulation 1 rescheduled to periods before 11 PM and after 5 AM. Probabilities for transitions between sleep stages were estimated with autoregressive multinomial logistic regression.
    RESULTS: Compared to a night without curfew, models indicate small improvements in sleep structure in nights with curfew, even if all traffic is rescheduled to periods before and after the curfew period. For those who go to bed before 10:30 PM or after 1 AM, this benefit is likely to be offset by the expected increase of air traffic during late evening and early morning hours. Limitations. Limited ecologic validity due to laboratory setting and subject sample.
    CONCLUSIONS: According to the decision analysis, it is unlikely that the proposed curfew at Frankfurt Airport substantially benefits sleep structure. Extensions of the model could be used to evaluate or propose alternative air traffic regulation strategies for Frankfurt Airport.

    PMID: 19684289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A model for the perception of environmental sound based on notice-events.
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    A model for the perception of environmental sound based on notice-events.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Aug;126(2):656-65

    Authors: De Coensel B, Botteldooren D, De Muer T, Berglund B, Nilsson ME, Lercher P

    Abstract
    An approach is proposed to shed light on the mechanisms underlying human perception of environmental sound that intrudes in everyday living. Most research on exposure-effect relationships aims at relating overall effects to overall exposure indicators in an epidemiological fashion, without including available knowledge on the possible underlying mechanisms. Here, it is proposed to start from available knowledge on audition and perception to construct a computational framework for the effect of environmental sound on individuals. Obviously, at the individual level additional mechanisms (inter-sensory, attentional, cognitive, emotional) play a role in the perception of environmental sound. As a first step, current knowledge is made explicit by building a model mimicking some aspects of human auditory perception. This model is grounded in the hypothesis that long-term perception of environmental sound is determined primarily by short notice-events. The applicability of the notice-event model is illustrated by simulating a synthetic population exposed to typical Flemish environmental noise. From these simulation results, it is demonstrated that the notice-event model is able to mimic the differences between the annoyance caused by road traffic noise exposure and railway traffic noise exposure that are also observed empirically in other studies and thus could provide an explanation for these differences.

    PMID: 19640031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands.
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    Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Aug;126(2):634-43

    Authors: Pedersen E, van den Berg F, Bakker R, Bouma J

    Abstract
    The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable.

    PMID: 19640029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Long-term road traffic noise exposure is associated with an increase in morning tiredness.
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    Long-term road traffic noise exposure is associated with an increase in morning tiredness.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Aug;126(2):626-33

    Authors: de Kluizenaar Y, Janssen SA, van Lenthe FJ, Miedema HM, Mackenbach JP

    Abstract
    This study investigates the association between night time road traffic noise exposure (L(night)) and self-reported sleep problems. Logistic regression was performed in a large population based cohort study (GLOBE), including over 18 000 subjects, to study the association between exposure at the dwelling facade and sleep problems. Measures of sleep problems were collected by questionnaire with two questions: "Do you in general get up tired and not well rested in the morning?" and "Do you often use sleep medication or tranquilizers?" After adjustment for potential confounders, a significant association was found between noise exposure and the risk of getting up tired and not rested in the morning. Although prevalence of medication use was higher at higher noise levels compared to the reference category (L(night)<35 dB), after adjustment for covariates this association was not significant. Long-term road traffic noise exposure is associated with increased risk of getting up tired and not rested in the morning in the general population. This result extends the earlier established relationship between long-term noise exposure and self-reported sleep disturbance assessed with questions that explicitly referred to noise and indicates that road traffic noise exposure during the night may have day-after effects.

    PMID: 19640028 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among traffic police in Dhaka Metropolitan City.
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    Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among traffic police in Dhaka Metropolitan City.

    Mymensingh Med J. 2009 Jan;18(1 Suppl):S24-28

    Authors: Sharif A, Taous A, Siddique BH, Dutta PG

    Abstract
    The present study was done to determine the prevalence of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) among the traffic police of Dhaka Metropolitan City. A cross sectional study was carried out among randomly selected 100 traffic police from January 2003 to June 2004, in the department of Department of Otolaryngology & Head-Neck Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. Personal interview was taken from every respondent about the duration of exposure of noise (8 hours/day) in Dhaka City. Otological examination consists of 1) Otoscopy 2) Tuning fork test and 3) Pure tone audiometry. In this study 23 complaints of tinnitus or ringing in the ear and only 5% complaints of deafness. 24 respondents had mild to moderate high frequency sensorineural hearing loss, and affected mainly frequencies of 4-6 KHz. Among 20 mild hearing loss cases, 11/53(20.75%) have had duration of exposure between 6-10 years, 4/31 (12.9%) had duration of exposure between 11-15 years and 5/16(31.25%) had duration of exposure between 16-20 years. Among the 4 moderate hearing loss cases, 2/31(6.45%) had duration of exposure of 11-15 years and 2/16(12.5%) had 16-20 years of noise exposure in Dhaka Metropolitan City. Among those who had exposure 6-10 years, 20% shows mild sensorineural hearing loss and those had exposure 11-20 years, 28% had mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. In the present series it is concluded that 24% of the respondent having mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss due to noise exposure which is related with the duration of exposure.

    PMID: 19377427 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Policy discourse, people's internal frames, and declared aircraft noise annoyance: an application of Q-methodology.
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    Policy discourse, people's internal frames, and declared aircraft noise annoyance: an application of Q-methodology.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Jul;126(1):195-207

    Authors: Kroesen M, Bröer C

    Abstract
    Aircraft noise annoyance is studied extensively, but often without an explicit theoretical framework. In this article, a social approach for noise annoyance is proposed. The idea that aircraft noise is meaningful to people within a socially produced discourse is assumed and tested. More particularly, it is expected that the noise policy discourse influences people's assessment of aircraft noise. To this end, Q-methodology is used, which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has not been used for aircraft noise annoyance so far. Through factor analysis five distinct frames are revealed: "Long live aviation!," "aviation: an ecological threat," "aviation and the environment: a solvable problem," "aircraft noise: not a problem," and "aviation: a local problem." It is shown that the former three frames are clearly related to the policy discourse. Based on this observation it is argued that policy making is a possible mechanism through which the sound of aircraft is turned into annoyance. In addition, it is concluded that the experience of aircraft noise and, in particular, noise annoyance is part of coherent frames of mind, which consist of mutually reinforcing positions and include non-acoustical factors.

    PMID: 19603877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Annoyance from environmental noise across the lifespan.
    Related Articles

    Annoyance from environmental noise across the lifespan.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Jul;126(1):187-94

    Authors: Van Gerven PW, Vos H, Van Boxtel MP, Janssen SA, Miedema HM

    Abstract
    Curvilinear effects of age on self-reported annoyance from environmental noise were investigated in a pooled international and a Dutch sample of in total 62,983 individuals aged between 15 and 102 years. All respondents were frequently exposed to varying levels of transportation noise (i.e., aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise). Results reveal an inverted U-shaped pattern, where the largest number of highly annoyed individuals was found in the middle-aged segment of the sample (peaking around 45 years) while the lowest number was found in the youngest and oldest age segments. This pattern was independent of noise exposure level and self-reported noise sensitivity. The inverted U-shape explains the absence of linear age effects in previous studies. The results are discussed in light of theories predicting an age-related vulnerability to noise.

    PMID: 19603876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A method for time-varying annoyance rating of aircraft noise.
    Related Articles

    A method for time-varying annoyance rating of aircraft noise.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Jul;126(1):1-3

    Authors: Dickson C

    Abstract
    The method of continuous judgment by category is used and evaluated to measure time-varying attributes in aircraft flyover sounds. The results are also used to estimate preference between the different experimental sounds. Jurors were asked to rate perceived annoyance on a Borg CR 100 scale continuously during the playback of 11 flyover sequences and the results showed differences in perception in the time segment where the sound had been modified. The method can be used to evaluate maximum perceived annoyance, threshold levels, duration of perceptual presence temporal integration in perception, and perceptual mixtures over time.

    PMID: 19603854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Non-auditory health effects among air force crew chiefs exposed to high level sound.
    Related Articles

    Non-auditory health effects among air force crew chiefs exposed to high level sound.

    Noise Health. 2009 Jul-Sep;11(44):176-81

    Authors: Jensen A, Lund SP, Lücke TH, Clausen OV, Svendsen JT

    Abstract
    The possibility of non-auditory health effects in connection with occupational exposure to high level sound is supposed by some researchers, but is still debated. Crew chiefs on airfields are exposed to high-level aircraft sound when working close to aircraft with running engines. We compared their health status with a similar control group who were not subject to this specific sound exposure. Health records of 42 crew chiefs were compared to health records of 42 aircraft mechanics and 17 former crew chiefs. The specific sound exposure of crew chiefs was assessed. The number of reported disease cases was generally small, but generally slightly higher among mechanics than among crew chiefs. Diseases of the ear were more frequent among crew chiefs (not significant). Former crew chiefs reported fewer diseases of the ear and more airways infections (both significant). The sound exposure during launch was up to 144 dB (peak) and 124 dB (L(eq) ), but for limited time. The study did not reveal a higher disease frequency in general among crew chiefs. However, it did reveal a tendency to ear diseases, possibly due to their exposure to high-level sound.

    PMID: 19602772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Reduction of road traffic noise and mental health: an intervention study.
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    Reduction of road traffic noise and mental health: an intervention study.

    Noise Health. 2009 Jul-Sep;11(44):169-75

    Authors: Stansfeld SA, Haines MM, Berry B, Burr M

    Abstract
    Road traffic noise exposure leads to annoyance and impairment of quality of life and may impair health. If this association is causal, a reduction in noise exposure should result in a reduction in noise annoyance and improvement in quality of life. This study examines whether the reduction in road traffic noise following the introduction of a bypass leads to reduction in noise annoyance and common mental disorder and an improvement in quality of life. Repeated measures field study with intervention in three small towns in North Wales, UK. Participants were residents 16 to 90 years living in areas of high or low exposure to road traffic noise. At baseline there was no difference in annoyance, quality of life or common mental disorder between traffic noise exposed and quiet areas. There was a small reduction in noise exposure (2-4 dBA) with the opening of the bypass. There was no reduction in noise annoyance and no change in levels of common mental disorder and quality of life following the introduction of the bypass. Traffic noise reduction associated with the introduction of the bypass was not associated with measurable changes in quality of life or common mental disorder. This study suggests that reduction in traffic noise level of 3dB or less is insufficient to influence annoyance or mental health. However, the methodological difficulties of the study limit the conclusions that can be drawn on whether there is a causal effect of noise on common mental disorder.

    PMID: 19602771 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Exposure-response relationship of the association between aircraft noise and the risk of hypertension.
    Related Articles

    Exposure-response relationship of the association between aircraft noise and the risk of hypertension.

    Noise Health. 2009 Jul-Sep;11(44):161-8

    Authors: Babisch W, Kamp Iv

    Abstract
    Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Under conditions of chronic noise stress the cardiovascular system may adversely be affected. Epidemiological noise studies regarding the relationship between aircraft noise and cardiovascular effects have been carried out on adults and on children focussing on mean blood pressure, hypertension and ischemic heart diseases as cardiovascular endpoints. While there is evidence that road traffic noise increases the risk of ischemic heart disease, including myocardial infarction, there is less such evidence for such an association with aircraft noise. This is partly due to the fact that large scale clinical studies are missing. There is sufficient qualitative evidence, however, that aircraft noise increases the risk of hypertension in adults. Regarding aircraft noise and children's blood pressure the results are still inconsistent. The available literature was evaluated for the WHO working group on "Aircraft Noise and Health" based on the experts' comprehensive knowledge in this field. With respect to the needs of a quantitative risk assessment for burden of disease calculations an attempt was made to derive an exposure-response relationship based on a meta-analysis. This association must be viewed as preliminary due to limitations which are concerned with the pooling of studies due to methodological differences in the assessment of exposure and outcome between studies. More studies are needed to establish better estimates of the risk.

    PMID: 19602770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Real noise from the urban environment: how ambient community noise affects health and what can be done about it.
    Related Articles

    Real noise from the urban environment: how ambient community noise affects health and what can be done about it.

    Am J Prev Med. 2009 Aug;37(2):167-71

    Authors: Moudon AV

    Abstract
    The increasing interest in the potential effects of the community environment on individual health has so far excluded those of the acoustic environment. Yet it has long been recognized that continued exposure to elevated sound levels leads to noise-induced hearing loss. Noise is defined as unwanted sound that disturbs communication and speech intelligibility and interferes with sleep and mental tasks. Evidence points to numerous psychophysiologic outcomes of sustained exposure, including annoyance, reduced performance, aggressive behavior, and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Populated areas have experienced a steady rise in outdoor ambient noise resulting from increases in vehicular traffic and the ubiquitous use of machinery. In 2000, the WHO produced guidelines on occupational and community noise. The European Union mandated noise surveillance and abatement programs in cities. In the U.S., a few cities have revised their noise ordinances, but proactive noise reduction initiatives remain confined to new transportation infrastructure projects, thus leaving a large portion of the population at risk. Adding community noise to the public health agenda seems timely. Research needs to measure population-wide health effects of involuntary long-term exposure to ambient noise. Further study of the range and severity of co-morbidities will help refine the thresholds used to protect health. Policies and interventions, including health impact assessments, will require detailed data on actual ambient noise levels. Reducing noise at the source will likely require new road standards and lower allowable engine noise levels. Finally, noise abatement programs have an environmental justice dimension and need to target the at-risk population.

    PMID: 19589452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise-induced hearing loss in French police officers.
    Related Articles

    Noise-induced hearing loss in French police officers.

    Occup Med (Lond). 2009 Oct;59(7):483-6

    Authors: Lesage FX, Jovenin N, Deschamps F, Vincent S

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data about police officers' hearing thresholds and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) associated with this occupation. In France, 129,000 national police officers, 96,000 state police force members and 16000 municipal police officers may be affected by occupational noise exposure.
    AIMS: To evaluate the association between police employment and NIHL.
    METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study using review of medical records. Audiometric and otological data and information on potential confounders were extracted from medical records. Global hearing loss and selective 4000 Hz hearing loss were analysed.
    RESULTS: Of total, 1692 subjects (887 policemen and 805 civil servants) participated in the study. After adjusting for potential cofounders, police officers were 1.4 times more likely to have a selective 4000 Hz hearing loss than civil servants (95% CI 1.1-1.9). This difference was greater between motorcycle police officers and civil servants (OR = 3; 95% CI 1.4-6.3).
    CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that occupational noise exposure in police work, particularly in motorcycle police officers, may induce hearing loss. Noise sources need to be more accurately defined to confirm high-level noise exposures, to better define significant sources of noise and to identify effective solutions.

    PMID: 19578077 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise levels associated with New York City's mass transit systems.
    Related Articles

    Noise levels associated with New York City's mass transit systems.

    Am J Public Health. 2009 Aug;99(8):1393-9

    Authors: Neitzel R, Gershon RR, Zeltser M, Canton A, Akram M

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: We measured noise levels associated with various forms of mass transit and compared them to exposure guidelines designed to protect against noise-induced hearing loss.
    METHODS: We used noise dosimetry to measure time-integrated noise levels in a representative sample of New York City mass transit systems (subways, buses, ferries, tramway, and commuter railways) aboard transit vehicles and at vehicle boarding platforms or terminals during June and July 2007.
    RESULTS: Of the transit types evaluated, subway cars and platforms had the highest associated equivalent continuous average (L(eq)) and maximum noise levels. All transit types had L(eq) levels appreciably above 70 A-weighted decibels, the threshold at which noise-induced hearing loss is considered possible.
    CONCLUSIONS: Mass transit noise exposure has the potential to exceed limits recommended by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency and thus cause noise-induced hearing loss among riders of all forms of mass transit given sufficient exposure durations. Environmental noise-control efforts in mass transit and, in cases in which controls are infeasible, the use of personal hearing protection would benefit the ridership's hearing health.

    PMID: 19542046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • German criteria for selection of hearing protectors in the interest of good signal audibility.
    Related Articles

    German criteria for selection of hearing protectors in the interest of good signal audibility.

    Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2009;15(2):163-74

    Authors: Liedtke M

    Abstract
    The German transport and personal protective equipment (PPE) technical committees of the German Social Accident Insurance have laid down criteria, which have since become established, for hearing protectors to be used in railway systems and road traffic in Germany: only hearing protectors which do not significantly impair the audibility of auditory warning signals may be used. In addition, the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (BGIA) has proposed a simple criterion for the selection of hearing protectors for workplaces outside railway systems and road traffic which perform well with regard to signal audibility (general), speech intelligibility, and perception of informative operating sound (AIP). This criterion is based upon the research carried out in the field of signal audibility in railway systems and road traffic and upon an additional study. It has been established by the German PPE technical committee and is presented here.

    PMID: 19534849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Effect of aircraft noise on hearing organs of air force specialists].
    Related Articles

    [Effect of aircraft noise on hearing organs of air force specialists].

    Voen Med Zh. 2009 Mar;330(3):54-8

    Authors: Zinkin VN, Soldatov SK, Sheshegov PM, Elefirenko SV, Mironov VG

    PMID: 19530460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Comparing two methods to measure preferred listening levels of personal listening devices.
    Related Articles

    Comparing two methods to measure preferred listening levels of personal listening devices.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Jun;125(6):3733-41

    Authors: Worthington DA, Siegel JH, Wilber LA, Faber BM, Dunckley KT, Garstecki DC, Dhar S

    Abstract
    The potential risk to hearing that mass-storage personal listening devices (PLDs) pose remains unclear. Previous research in this area has either focused on maximum outputs of these devices or on ear-canal measurements of listening levels that could not be compared to standards of occupational noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare two standard measurement protocols [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland; ISO 11904-2 (2004), Switzerland] for the measurement of preferred listening levels of PLD. Noise measurements, behavioral thresholds, and oral interviews were obtained from 30 (18-30 years) PLD users. Preferred listening levels for self-selected music were determined in quiet and background noise using a probe microphone, as well as in the DB-100 ear simulator mounted in KEMAR. The ear-canal measurements were compensated for diffuse-field. Only one of the subjects was found to be listening at hazardous levels once their reported daily usage was accounted for using industrial workplace standards. The variance across subjects was the smallest in the ear-canal measurements that were compensated for diffuse-field equivalence [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland]. Seven subjects were found to be listening at levels above 85 dBA based on measurements obtained in the KEMAR and then compensated for diffuse-field equivalence.

    PMID: 19507955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Acoustical model and theory for predicting effects of environmental noise on people.
    Related Articles

    Acoustical model and theory for predicting effects of environmental noise on people.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Jun;125(6):3707-21

    Authors: Kryter KD

    Abstract
    The Schultz [(1978). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 377-405]; Fidell et al. [(1991). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 221-233] and Finegold et al. [(1994). Noise Control Eng. 42, 25-30] curves present misleading research information regarding DENL/DENL levels of environmental noises from transportation vehicles and the impact of annoyance and associated adverse effects on people living in residential areas. The reasons are shown to be jointly due to (a) interpretations of early research data, (b) plotting of annoyance data for noise exposure from different types of transportation vehicles on a single set of coordinates, and (c) the assumption that the effective, as heard, levels of noise from different sources are proportional to day, night level (DNL)/day, evening night level (DENL) levels measured at a common-point outdoors. The subtraction of on-site attenuations from the measured outdoor levels of environmental noises used in the calculation of DNL/DENL provides new metrics, labeled EDNL/EDENL, for the calculation of the effective exposure levels of noises perceived as equaling annoying. Predictions of judged annoyance in residential areas from the noises of transportation vehicles are made with predicted errors of <1 dB EDNL/EDENL, compared to errors ranging from approximately 6 to approximately 14 dB by DNL/DENL. A joint neurological, physiological, and psychological theory, and an effective acoustical model for the prediction of public annoyance and related effects from exposures to environment noises are presented.

    PMID: 19507953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The relationship of housing and population health: a 30-year retrospective analysis.
    Related Articles

    The relationship of housing and population health: a 30-year retrospective analysis.

    Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Apr;117(4):597-604

    Authors: Jacobs DE, Wilson J, Dixon SL, Smith J, Evens A

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the relationship between health status and housing quality over time.
    METHODS: We combined data from two nationally representative longitudinal surveys of the U.S. population and its housing, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the American Housing Survey, respectively. We identified housing and health trends from approximately 1970 to 2000, after excluding those trends for which data were missing or where we found no plausible association or change in trend.
    RESULTS: Changes in housing include construction type, proportion of rental versus home ownership, age, density, size, moisture, pests, broken windows, ventilation and air conditioning, and water leaks. Changes in health measures include asthma, respiratory illness, obesity and diabetes, and lead poisoning, among others. The results suggest ecologic trends in childhood lead poisoning follow housing age, water leaks, and ventilation; asthma follows ventilation, windows, and age; overweight trends follow ventilation; blood pressure trends follow community measures; and health disparities have not changed greatly.
    CONCLUSIONS: Housing trends are consistent with certain health trends over time. Future national longitudinal surveys should include health, housing, and community metrics within a single integrated design, instead of separate surveys, in order to develop reliable indicators of how housing changes affect population health and how to best target resources. Little progress has been made in reducing the health and housing disparities of disadvantaged groups, with the notable exception of childhood lead poisoning caused by exposure to lead-based paint hazards. Use of these and other data sets to create reliable integrated indicators of health and housing quality are needed.

    PMID: 19440499 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Response to a change in transport noise exposure: a review of evidence of a change effect.
    Related Articles

    Response to a change in transport noise exposure: a review of evidence of a change effect.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 May;125(5):3018-29

    Authors: Brown AL, van Kamp I

    Abstract
    Environmental appraisals of transport infrastructure plans are generally conducted in situations where there will be a step change, or an abrupt change, in noise exposure. While there has been a number of studies of response to step changes in exposure, and seven previous reviews of subsets of these studies, understanding of human response to a change in noise exposure remains limited. Building largely on these previous reviews, this paper examines the evidence that when noise exposure is changed, subjective reaction may not change in the way that would be predicted from steady-state exposure-response relationships. The weight of evidence, while not incontrovertible, is that when exposure changes, responses show an excess response compared to responses predicted from steady-state exposure-response relationships. That is, there is a change effect in addition to an exposure effect--at least for road studies and at least where the change in exposure results from changes at the source. Further, there appears to be little, if any, adaptation of this excess response with time.

    PMID: 19425645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise sensitivity and subjective health: questionnaire study conducted along trunk roads in Kusatsu, Japan.
    Related Articles

    Noise sensitivity and subjective health: questionnaire study conducted along trunk roads in Kusatsu, Japan.

    Noise Health. 2009 Apr-Jun;11(43):111-7

    Authors: Kishikawa H, Matsui T, Uchiyama I, Miyakawa M, Hiramatsu K, Stansfeld SA

    Abstract
    A questionnaire study was conducted in a residential area along trunk roads in Kusatsu, Japan, in order to investigate the association between noise exposure, noise sensitivity, and subjective health. Subjective health of the respondents was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which yields the total score as an index of psychiatric disorder and four subscales. Noise sensitivity was measured by the improved version of the Weinstein's noise sensitivity scale named WNS-6B. The original WNS and a single question directly asking respondents' noise sensitivity were also applied to confirm the validity of the WNS-6B for investigating the effects of road traffic noise on subjective health. Respondents were also asked about disturbances of daily life due to noise exposure to find the cause of the health effects. Three hundred and twenty three answers were entered into the analysis. Applying the WNS-6B as the noise sensitivity measurement scale, a significant correlation was found between subjective health and noise exposure in the noise-sensitive group, while no significant correlation was observed in the insensitive group. These results suggest that the adverse health effects may exist especially in the sensitive group. Application of the other two noise sensitivity measurement scales showed no significant relationship either in the sensitive group or in the insensitive group. The WNS-6B would have greater advantage for detecting adverse health effects than the other scales. Furthermore, the primary cause of the adverse health effect was investigated. The results of the analysis indicated that the adverse health effects were mainly caused by the sleep disturbance and were not caused by hearing interference.

    PMID: 19414931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Pilot workload during approaches: comparison of simulated standard and noise-abatement profiles.
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    Pilot workload during approaches: comparison of simulated standard and noise-abatement profiles.

    Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009 Apr;80(4):364-70

    Authors: Elmenhorst EM, Vejvoda M, Maass H, Wenzel J, Plath G, Schubert E, Basner M

    Abstract
    INTRODUCTION: A new noise-reduced landing approach was tested--a Segmented Continuous Descent Approach (SCDA)-with regard to the resulting workload on pilots.
    METHODS: Workload of 40 pilots was measured using physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, blink frequency, saliva cortisol concentration) and psychological (fatigue, sleepiness, tension, and task load) parameters. Approaches were conducted in A320 and A330 full-flight simulators during night shift. SCDA was compared to the standard Low Drag Low Power (LDLP) procedure as reference.
    RESULTS: Mean heart rate and blood pressure during the SCDA were not elevated, but were partly, even significantly, reduced (on average by 5 bpm and 4 mmHg from the flying captain). Cortisol levels did not change significantly with mean values of 0.9 to 1.2 ng ml(-1). Landing was the most demanding segment of both approaches as indicated by significant increases in heart rate and decreases in blink frequency. Subjective task load was low.
    DISCUSSION: Both approach procedures caused a similar workload level. Interpreting the results, methodological limitations have to be considered, e.g., the artificial and controlled airspace situation in the flight simulator. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that under these ideal conditions, the SCDA is operable without a higher workload for pilots compared to the common LDLP.

    PMID: 19378906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Predictors of noise annoyance in noisy and quiet urban streets.
    Related Articles

    Predictors of noise annoyance in noisy and quiet urban streets.

    Sci Total Environ. 2009 Jun 1;407(12):3707-11

    Authors: Paunović K, Jakovljević B, Belojević G

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: Although noise annoyance is a major public health problem in urban areas, there is a lack of published data on predictors for noise annoyance in acoustically different urban environments. The aim of the study was to assess the predictive value of various factors on noise annoyance in noisy and quiet urban streets.
    METHODS: Equivalent noise levels [Leq (dBA)] were measured during day, evening and night times in all of the streets of a central Belgrade municipality. Based on 24-hour noise levels, the streets were denoted as noisy (24-hour Leq over 65 dBA), or quiet (24-hour Leq under 55 dBA). A cross-sectional study was performed on 1954 adult residents (768 men and 1186 women), aged 18-80 years. Noise annoyance was estimated using a self-report five-graded scale. In both areas, two multivariate logistic regression models were fitted: the first one with nighttime noise indicators and the other one with parameters for 24-hour noise exposure.
    RESULTS: In noisy streets, the relevant predictors of high annoyance were: the orientation of living room/bedroom toward the street, noise annoyance at workplace, and noise sensitivity. Significant acoustical factors for high noise annoyance were: nighttime noise level [OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.00-1.04 (per decibel)], nighttime heavy traffic [OR=1.01, 95%CI=1.00-1.02 (per vehicle)]; or day-evening-night noise level (Lden) [OR=1.03, 95%CI=1.00-1.07 (per decibel)]. In quiet streets, the significant predictors were: noise sensitivity, the time spent at home daily, light vehicles at nighttime or heavy vehicles at daytime.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified subjective noise sensitivity as a common annoyance predictor, regardless of noise exposure. Noise levels were important indicators of annoyance only in noisy streets, both for nighttime and 24-hour exposure. We propose that noise sensitivity is the most relevant personal trait for future studies and that nighttime noise levels might be as good as Lden in predicting annoyance in noisy urban areas.

    PMID: 19327817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Hearing loss in veterans and the need for hearing loss prevention programs.
    Related Articles

    Hearing loss in veterans and the need for hearing loss prevention programs.

    Noise Health. 2009 Jan-Mar;11(42):14-21

    Authors: Saunders GH, Griest SE

    Abstract
    Currently, there are more than 445,000 veterans receiving compensation for hearing loss associated with military service, and 395,000 receiving compensation for service-related tinnitus. In addition to compensation payments, service-related hearing disorders cost the US Department of Veterans Affairs in terms of provision of hearing aids, hearing aid-related services, and clinical services at its 220 facilities nationwide. It is imperative that hearing conservation among military personnel and veterans be addressed. In this paper, we describe the rationale for and the development of a multimedia Hearing Loss Prevention Program aimed at preventing the progression of hearing loss among veterans associated with social, recreational, and nonmilitary occupational noise exposure. The program was developed based on the principles outlined in the Health Belief Model of Rosenstock (1966) and the Health Promotion Model of Pender et al. (2002).

    PMID: 19265249 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Otoacoustic detection of risk of early hearing loss in ears with normal audiograms: a 3-year follow-up study.
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    Otoacoustic detection of risk of early hearing loss in ears with normal audiograms: a 3-year follow-up study.

    Hear Res. 2009 May;251(1-2):10-6

    Authors: Job A, Raynal M, Kossowski M, Studler M, Ghernaouti C, Baffioni-Venturi A, Roux A, Darolles C, Guelorget A

    Abstract
    INTRODUCTION: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are known to represent the contractile amplifier function of cochlear outer hair cells. It is known that low or absent DPOAEs are associated with hearing loss on audiograms. However, low DPOAEs can also be found associated with normal audiograms. It is unknown whether low DPOAEs in normal hearing ears are risk markers for subsequent early hearing loss when subjects are exposed to noise.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3-year follow-up study was carried out on a population of pilots aged 20-40 years (n=521). Data collection consisted of tonal audiograms, DPOAEs measurements with a calculation of an index of abnormality (the IaDPOAE). Of the 521 pilots enrolled, 350 (67%) had follow-up data 3 years later. In pilots with normal audiograms (n=219, all frequencies=10dB HL), we observed the occurrence of hearing threshold shifts after 3 years depending on whether the IaDPOAE was initially high (group 1) or low (group 2). We used this index to test the hypothesis that reduced DPOAEs levels are potential ear vulnerability biomarkers in apparent normal hearing ears. After a 3-year follow-up, the initial IaDPOAE in normal hearing subjects was correlated with final noise-induced hearing threshold shifts at high frequencies (p<0.01). The occurrence of abnormal audiograms was significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (p=0.003). In group 1, 13% of audiograms were found with at least one frequency 25dB HL compared to 3% of audiograms in group 2. In both groups, impairments occurred at high frequencies and hearing in the 4kHz frequency range was significantly more impaired in group 1 (p=0.035). Group 1 was associated with a relative risk of 2.29 (95% CI 1.26-4.16, p=0.005) of sustaining early hearing loss. There was no significant differences between groups for age and noise exposure.
    DISCUSSION: In adults with a normal audiogram, ear vulnerability to noise could be elicited by the use of objective DPOAE measurements. A high IaDPOAE that corresponded to reduced DPOAE levels constitutes a risk for early hearing loss. This study emphasised the interest of DPOAE measurements in public health and occupational noise prevention policies. The IaDPOAE calculation may also be interesting for clinicians because no DPOAE index of abnormality is currently available.

    PMID: 19249340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Effects of aircraft noise on preschool children's misbehaviours: results of research around the Kadena and Futenma airfields in Okinawa].
    Related Articles

    [Effects of aircraft noise on preschool children's misbehaviours: results of research around the Kadena and Futenma airfields in Okinawa].

    Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2009 Jan;64(1):14-25

    Authors: Tokuyama T, Matsui T, Hiramatsu K, Miyakita T, Ito A, Yamamoto T

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between aircraft noise exposure as expressed by Weighted Equivalent Continuous Perceived Noise Level (WECPNL) and preschool children's misbehaviours around the Kadena and Futenma airfields in Okinawa.
    METHODS: A questionnaire survey on children's misbehaviour was conducted in nursery schools and kindergartens around the Kadena and Futenma airfields. The children living around the Kadena airfield were divided into four groups according to WECPNL at their residences and those around the Futenma airfield into three groups according to WECPNL. The subjects were 1,888 male and female preschool children, 3 to 6 years of age, whose parents, caregivers, and teachers answered the questions. The answers used for the analysis were limited to those of respondents fulfilling the following conditions: parents living with their children, fathers with a daytime job, and mothers with a daytime job or no job. Thus, the number of valid answers was 1,213. The responses were analysed using logistic regression models taking the number of misbehaviours related to the items of Biological Function, Social Standard, Physical Constitution, Movement Habit, or Character as the dependent variables, and WECPNL, age, sex, size of family, birth order, mother's age at birth, mother's job, caregiver's career, and category of subject as the independent variables.
    RESULTS: A significant dose-response relationship was found between the odds ratio and WECPNL for the outcomes of Physical Constitution around the Kadena and Futenma airfields.
    CONCLUSIONS: It would be reasonable to conclude that the aircraft noise exposure is a factor that increases the number of preschool children's misbehaviours.

    PMID: 19246856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Response to a change in transport noise exposure: competing explanations of change effects.
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    Response to a change in transport noise exposure: competing explanations of change effects.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Feb;125(2):905-14

    Authors: Brown AL, van Kamp I

    Abstract
    Annoyance response to a change in noise exposure appears to demonstrate an excess response relative to those predicted from exposure-response curves obtained under steady-state conditions. This change effect also appears to persist well after the change. Numerous explanations have been postulated for this phenomenon. This paper catalogs the different explanations and reviews the evidence for each. The evidence is of limited and variable quality but, while inadequate to endorse any one explanation, is sufficient to reject some notions and to identify a residual set of plausible explanations. These include two explanations based on modifiers of exposure-response relationships that potentially change between before and after conditions, an explanation based on differential response criteria of respondents chronically exposed to different steady-state levels of noise, and an explanation based on retention of coping strategies. All have ramifications for the assessment of human response (annoyance) where noise exposure changes, and some have wider implications for the interpretation of generalized exposure-response curves obtained in the steady state.

    PMID: 19206867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Children's annoyance reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise.
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    Children's annoyance reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Feb;125(2):895-904

    Authors: van Kempen EE, van Kamp I, Stellato RK, Lopez-Barrio I, Haines MM, Nilsson ME, Clark C, Houthuijs D, Brunekreef B, Berglund B, Stansfeld SA

    Abstract
    Since annoyance reactions of children to environmental noise have rarely been investigated, no source specific exposure-response relations are available. The aim of this paper is to investigate children's reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise and to derive exposure-response relations. To this end, children's annoyance reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise in both the home and the school setting were investigated using the data gathered in a cross-sectional multicenter study, carried out among 2844 children (age 9-11 years) attending 89 primary schools around three European airports. An exposure-response relation was demonstrated between exposure to aircraft noise at school (L(Aeq,7-23 h)) and severe annoyance in children: after adjustment for confounders, the percentage severely annoyed children was predicted to increase from about 5.1% at 50 dB to about 12.1% at 60 dB. The findings were consistent across the three samples. Aircraft noise at home (L(Aeq,7-23 h)) demonstrated a similar relation with severe annoyance. Children attending schools with higher road traffic noise (L(Aeq,7-23 h)) were more annoyed. Although children were less annoyed at levels above 55 dB, the shapes of the exposure-response relations found among children were comparable to those found in their parents.

    PMID: 19206866 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Resident-defined neighborhood mapping: using GIS to analyze phenomenological neighborhoods.
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    Resident-defined neighborhood mapping: using GIS to analyze phenomenological neighborhoods.

    J Prev Interv Community. 2009;37(1):66-81

    Authors: Lohmann A, McMurran G

    Abstract
    Using a natural quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design, residents in randomly selected homes in a suburb of Los Angeles were surveyed about their perceptions of their neighborhoods with respect to cohesion and sense of community. Responses from the pretest surveys--administered before the construction of a freeway that would bisect the city--were compared to the responses from the posttest survey six years later, administered two years after completion of the freeway. Respondents living adjacent to the new freeway--residents who experienced a fourfold increase in the average decibel levels in their neighborhoods since the freeway opened--reported both a lower sense of community and smaller neighborhood areas as compared to residents not living adjacent to the freeway and as compared to the results from the pretest. The analysis of the data incorporated geographic information system (GIS) software to allow for the analysis of phenomenological neighborhoods--neighborhoods as defined by respondents. This Resident-defined Neighborhood Mapping methodology permitted us to analyze neighborhoods as the respondents outlined them, not as they were preconceived by someone outside the neighborhood. It is suggested that this new methodology may prove useful in advancing the field of neighborhood research by detecting neighborhood-level change that traditional methods may miss.

    PMID: 19197675 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Risk of hypertension from exposure to road traffic noise in a population-based sample.
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    Risk of hypertension from exposure to road traffic noise in a population-based sample.

    Occup Environ Med. 2009 Jun;66(6):410-5

    Authors: Barregard L, Bonde E, Ohrström E

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between hypertension and traffic noise.
    METHODS: The prevalence and incidence of hypertension were examined in a Swedish municipality partly affected by noise from a highway (20,000 vehicles/24 h) and a railway (200 trains/24 h). A-weighed 24 h average sound levels (L(Aeq,24h)) from road and railway traffic were calculated at each residential building using a geographical information system and a validated model. Physician-diagnosed hypertension, antihypertensive medication and background factors were evaluated in 1953 individuals using postal questionnaires (71% response rate). Prevalence ratios and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for different noise categories. Based on year of moving into the residence and year of diagnosis, person-years and incidence rates of hypertension were estimated, as well as relative risks including covariates, using Poisson and Cox regression.
    RESULTS: When road traffic noise, age, sex, heredity and body mass index were included in logistic regression models, and allowing for >10 years of latency, the OR for hypertension was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.5) in the highest noise category (56-70 dBA) and 3.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.0) in men. The incidence rate ratio was increased in this group of men, and the relative risk of hypertension in a Poisson regression model was 2.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 6.2). There were no clear associations in women or for railway noise.
    CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a positive association between residential road traffic noise and hypertension among men, and an exposure-response relationship. While prevalence ratios were increased, findings were more pronounced when incidence was assessed.

    PMID: 19188199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and myocardial infarction.
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    Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and myocardial infarction.

    Epidemiology. 2009 Mar;20(2):272-9

    Authors: Selander J, Nilsson ME, Bluhm G, Rosenlund M, Lindqvist M, Nise G, Pershagen G

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: An association has been reported between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but the evidence is limited and inconclusive. No previous study has simultaneously analyzed the role of exposure to noise and air pollution from road traffic in the risk of MI.
    METHODS: A population-based case-control study on MI was conducted 1992-1994 in Stockholm County. Participants answered a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Residential exposure to noise and air pollution from road traffic between 1970 and 1992-1994 was assessed for 3666 participants (1571 cases of MI and 2095 controls), based on residential history combined with information on traffic intensity and distance to nearby roads. Information was also obtained on factors potentially affecting the relationship between noise exposure and MI, such as noise annoyance.
    RESULTS: The correlation between long-term individual exposure to noise and air pollution from traffic was high (r = 0.6). The adjusted odds ratio for MI associated with long-term road traffic noise exposure of 50 dBA or higher was 1.12 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.33). In a subsample, defined by excluding persons with hearing loss or exposure to noise from other sources, the corresponding odds ratio was 1.38 (1.11-1.71), with a positive exposure-response trend. No strong effect modification was apparent by sex or cardiovascular risk factors, including air pollution from road traffic.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results lend some support to the hypothesis that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk for MI.

    PMID: 19116496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep.
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    Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep.

    Int J Psychophysiol. 2009 May;72(2):179-86

    Authors: Graham JM, Janssen SA, Vos H, Miedema HM

    Abstract
    The relationships between road and rail traffic noise with pre-ejection period (PEP) and with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during sleep, as indices of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system tone, were investigated in the field (36 subjects, with 188 and 192 valid subject nights for PEP and RSA, respectively). Two analyses were conducted. The first analysis investigated the overall relationships across the entire sleep period. A second analysis investigated differences in the relationships between the first and second halves of the sleep period. Separate multilevel linear regression models for PEP and RSA were employed. Potential covariates for each model were selected from the same pool of variables, which included: gender, age, body-mass index, education level, traffic noise source type, intake of medication, caffeine, alcohol and cigarette smoke, and hindrance during sleep due to the ambulatory recordings. RSA models were adjusted for respiration rate. Mean indoor traffic noise exposure was negatively related to mean RSA during the sleep period, specifically during the second half of the sleep period. Both respiration rate and age were negatively associated with RSA. No significant relationships were observed for PEP. The results indicate that higher indoor traffic noise exposure levels may lead to cardiac parasympathetic withdrawal during sleep, specifically during the second half of the sleep period. No effect of indoor traffic noise on cardiac sympathetic tone was observed.

    PMID: 19105970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.
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    Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.

    Occup Environ Med. 2009 May;66(5):347-50

    Authors: Davies HW, Vlaanderen JJ, Henderson SB, Brauer M

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Both air and noise pollution associated with motor vehicle traffic have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Similarities in pollution source and health outcome mean that there is potential for noise to confound studies of air pollution and cardiovascular disease, and vice versa, or for more complex interactions to occur.
    METHODS: The correlations between 2-week average roadside concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) and short term average noise levels (L(eq,5min)) for 103 urban sites with varying traffic, environment and infrastructure characteristics were examined.
    RESULTS: The Pearson correlation coefficient for L(eq,5min) and NO(2) was 0.53, and for L(eq,5min) and NO(X) , 0.64. Factors influencing the degree of correlation were number of lanes on the closest road, number of cars or trucks during noise sampling and presence of a major intersection.
    CONCLUSIONS: We recommend measurement of both pollutants in future studies of traffic-related pollution and cardiovascular disease to allow for more sophisticated analysis of this relationship.

    PMID: 19017692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The joint association of air pollution and noise from road traffic with cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study.
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    The joint association of air pollution and noise from road traffic with cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study.

    Occup Environ Med. 2009 Apr;66(4):243-50

    Authors: Beelen R, Hoek G, Houthuijs D, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, Fischer P, Schouten LJ, Armstrong B, Brunekreef B

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: Associations between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution and noise together were investigated.
    METHODS: Data from the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (120,852 subjects; follow-up 1987-1996) were used. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted for the association between cardiovascular mortality and exposure to black smoke, traffic intensity on the nearest road and road traffic noise at the home address.
    RESULTS: The correlations between traffic noise and background black smoke, and traffic intensity on the nearest road were moderate at 0.24 and 0.30, respectively. Traffic intensity was associated with cardiovascular mortality, with highest relative risk (95% confidence interval) for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality being 1.11 (1.03 to 1.20) (increment 10,000 motor vehicles/24 h). Relative risks for black smoke concentrations were elevated for cerebrovascular (1.39 (0.99 to 1.94)) and heart failure mortality (1.75 (1.00 to 3.05)) (increment 10 microg/m(3)). These associations were insensitive to adjustment for traffic noise. There was an excess of cardiovascular mortality in the highest noise category (>65 dB(A)), with elevated risks for IHD (1.15 (0.86 to 1.53)) and heart failure mortality (1.99 (1.05 to 3.79)). After adjustment for black smoke and traffic intensity, noise risk reduced to unity for IHD mortality and was slightly reduced for heart failure mortality.
    CONCLUSIONS: Associations between black smoke concentrations and traffic intensity on the nearest road with specific cardiovascular causes of death were not explained by traffic noise in this study.

    PMID: 19017691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road-traffic noise and factors influencing noise annoyance in an urban population.
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    Road-traffic noise and factors influencing noise annoyance in an urban population.

    Environ Int. 2009 Apr;35(3):552-6

    Authors: Jakovljevic B, Paunovic K, Belojevic G

    Abstract
    Noise annoyance is influenced by sound-related factors: type of noise, noise level and frequency, and person-related factors-physiological, psychological, and social factors. Prior to implementation of the Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council in Serbia, there was a need for the first comprehensive study on noise annoyance in Serbian urban population. The aim of this study was to determine principal factors for high noise annoyance in an adult urban population and to assess their predictive value. A cross-sectional study was performed on 3097 adult residents of a downtown municipality in Belgrade (1217 men and 1880 women), aged 18-96 years. Equivalent noise levels [Leq (dBA)] were measured during day, evening and night in all streets of the municipality. Noise annoyance was estimated using self-reported annoyance scale. Noise annoyance showed strong correlation with noise levels, personal characteristics and some housing conditions. Dose-response relationship was found between the percentage of highly annoyed residents and Lden. Logistic regression model identified increased risk for a high level of noise annoyance with regard to: orientation of living room/bedroom toward the street (Odds Ratio=2.60; 95% Confidence Interval=2.04-3.31), duration of stay at apartment during the day [OR=1.04, 95%CI=1.02-1.06 (per hour)], noise sensitivity [OR=1.04, 95%CI=1.03-1.04 (per scale unit)], and nighttime road-traffic noise level [OR=1.03, 95%CI=1.02-1.04 (per decibel)].

    PMID: 19007991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Hearing status among cabin crew in a Swedish commercial airline company.
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    Hearing status among cabin crew in a Swedish commercial airline company.

    Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009 Jul;82(7):887-92

    Authors: Lindgren T, Wieslander G, Nordquist T, Dammström BG, Norbäck D

    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To study hearing loss in commercial airline cabin crew (CC).
    METHODS: Totally 155 male and 781 female CC (n = 936) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiometric tests during 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing loss. The mean test values at 3, 4, 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing loss. Data were compared with a Swedish population (n = 603) who were not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured in different aircraft.
    RESULTS: Leq was 78-84 dB (A), maximum A-weighted exposure was 114 dB. Median values for all ages were close to the reference group. No association was found between years of employment and hearing loss, when adjusting for age and gender by multiple logistic regression analysis.
    CONCLUSION: Cabin crew are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard, and have normal age-matched hearing threshold levels.

    PMID: 18972126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.
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    A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Nov;158(1-4):155-67

    Authors: Oyedepo OS, Saadu AA

    Abstract
    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

    PMID: 18846431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road traffic noise, sensitivity, annoyance and self-reported health--a structural equation model exercise.
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    Road traffic noise, sensitivity, annoyance and self-reported health--a structural equation model exercise.

    Environ Int. 2009 Jan;35(1):91-7

    Authors: Fyhri A, Klaeboe R

    Abstract
    The proposed effect of road traffic noise on hypertension and ischemic heart disease finds mixed empirical support. One problem with many studies is that the directions of the causal relationships are not identified. This is often the case when cross-sectional data and multivariate regression models are utilised. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between road traffic noise and health. More specifically the relationships between noise complaints, noise sensitivity and subjectively reported hypertension and heart problems were investigated. 1842 respondents in Oslo, Norway were interviewed about their experience of the local environment and their subjective health complaints. The interviews were conducted as part of two surveys. Individual measures of air pollution (NO(2)) and noise (Lden) were calculated. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Models. Only sensitivity to noise is related to hypertension and chest pain. No relationships between noise exposure and health complaints were identified. Rather than noise being the causal agent leading to health problems, the results suggest that the noise-health relationships in these studies may be spurious. It is conceivable that individual vulnerability is reflected both in ill health and in being sensitive to noise. The benefit of including more contextual variables in a model of noise-health relationships is supported.

    PMID: 18823662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Estimating human exposure to transport noise in central Dublin, Ireland.
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    Estimating human exposure to transport noise in central Dublin, Ireland.

    Environ Int. 2009 Feb;35(2):298-302

    Authors: Murphy E, King EA, Rice HJ

    Abstract
    This paper reports on research conducted to determine estimates of the extent of environmental noise exposure from road transport on residents and workers in central Dublin, Ireland. The Harmonoise calculation method is used to calculate noise values for the study area while a Geographical Information System (GIS) is utilised as a platform upon which levels of noise exposure are estimated. Residential exposure is determined for L(den) and L(night) while worker exposure is determined for L(den). In order to analyse the potential of traffic management as a noise abatement measure, traffic was redirected from the main residential areas to alternative road links and the revised exposure levels were determined. The results show that the extent of noise exposure in Dublin is considerable, and in relative terms, it is worse for the night-time period. In addition, the results suggest also that traffic management measures have the potential to lead to significant reductions in the level of noise exposure provided that careful consideration is given to the impact of traffic flows on residential populations.

    PMID: 18814913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The annoyance of snoring.
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    The annoyance of snoring.

    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Feb;266(2):293-6

    Authors: Dreher A, Rader T, Patscheider M, Klemens C, Schmidt M, Baker F, de la Chaux R

    Abstract
    Is the annoyance of snoring a reliable tool for the measurement of snoring or does it depend more on the sensitivity of the listener? During an automatized hearing experiment, 550 representative snoring sequences, recorded during polysomnography, were randomly presented to ten examiners for the evaluation of their annoyance (0-100). The mean annoyance score for each snoring sound and the covariance parameters for rater and snoring sounds (restricted maximum likelihood method) were calculated. The average annoyance rating of all snoring sequences was 63.9+/-23.0, the most acceptable snoring sequence rating was 49.2+/-28.0, the most annoying rating was 77.7+/-16.4. The covariance parameters were estimated as 28.7% for the rater and 22.3% for the snoring sound. Our results show that the listeners' noise sensitivity is at least equally relevant for the snoring annoyance as the snoring sound itself.

    PMID: 18574588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.
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    Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Apr;151(1-4):1-8

    Authors: Lei B, Yang X, Yang J

    Abstract
    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process of the third runway building project of Pudong International Airport is briefly introduced in the paper. The basic principle, the features, and the operation steps of newly imported FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) are discussed for evaluating the aircraft noise impacts. The prediction of the aircraft noise and the countermeasures for the noise mitigation are developed, which includes the reasonable runway location, the optimized land use, the selection of low noise aircrafts, the Fly Quit Program, the relocation of sensitive receptors and the noise insulation of sensitive buildings. Finally, the expansion project is justified and its feasibility is confirmed.

    PMID: 18373206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Attitudinal response towards road traffic noise in the industrial town of Asansol, India.
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    Attitudinal response towards road traffic noise in the industrial town of Asansol, India.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Apr;151(1-4):37-44

    Authors: Banerjee D, Chakraborty SK, Bhattacharyya S, Gangopadhyay A

    Abstract
    The major objective of the investigation was to evaluate the road traffic noise and its likely impacts on the local community of Asansol city (West Bengal, India) by monitoring and modeling. The attitudinal response of local population due to existing vehicular noise is presented in the paper. Noise and Attitudinal Survey was conducted at 25 locations. A total of 869 individuals were surveyed. The relationship between traffic noise levels and annoyance was studied using correlation, linear and multiple linear regressions analysis. The average L(dn) value was 73.28 +/- 8.51 dB(A) (55.1-87.3); The Traffic Noise Index (TNI) was 80.62 +/- 15.88 dB(A) (49.4-115.8). The mean value of percent of population Highly Annoyed (%HA) due to road traffic noise was 26.50 +/- 3.37 (19.44-33.2), whereas the mean dissatisfaction score (MDS) was 2.96 +/- 0.90 (1.04-4.45). Annoyance modeling was also performed based on field data. It can be said that Noise values gives desirable annoyance predicting values in comparison to vehicular data.

    PMID: 18369730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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