Studien 2008

pubmed: studien aus 2008

NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=((((Noise, Transportation[MeSH Terms]) OR transportation noise[MeSH Terms]) OR aircraft noise[Title]) AND Humans[MeSH Terms]) AND ("2008/01/01"[PDAT] : "2008/12/31"[PDAT])
  • The relationship of housing and population health: a 30-year retrospective analysis.
    Related Articles

    The relationship of housing and population health: a 30-year retrospective analysis.

    Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Apr;117(4):597-604

    Authors: Jacobs DE, Wilson J, Dixon SL, Smith J, Evens A

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the relationship between health status and housing quality over time.
    METHODS: We combined data from two nationally representative longitudinal surveys of the U.S. population and its housing, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the American Housing Survey, respectively. We identified housing and health trends from approximately 1970 to 2000, after excluding those trends for which data were missing or where we found no plausible association or change in trend.
    RESULTS: Changes in housing include construction type, proportion of rental versus home ownership, age, density, size, moisture, pests, broken windows, ventilation and air conditioning, and water leaks. Changes in health measures include asthma, respiratory illness, obesity and diabetes, and lead poisoning, among others. The results suggest ecologic trends in childhood lead poisoning follow housing age, water leaks, and ventilation; asthma follows ventilation, windows, and age; overweight trends follow ventilation; blood pressure trends follow community measures; and health disparities have not changed greatly.
    CONCLUSIONS: Housing trends are consistent with certain health trends over time. Future national longitudinal surveys should include health, housing, and community metrics within a single integrated design, instead of separate surveys, in order to develop reliable indicators of how housing changes affect population health and how to best target resources. Little progress has been made in reducing the health and housing disparities of disadvantaged groups, with the notable exception of childhood lead poisoning caused by exposure to lead-based paint hazards. Use of these and other data sets to create reliable integrated indicators of health and housing quality are needed.

    PMID: 19440499 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Mapping unpleasantness of sounds to their auditory representation.
    Related Articles

    Mapping unpleasantness of sounds to their auditory representation.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Dec;124(6):3810-7

    Authors: Kumar S, Forster HM, Bailey P, Griffiths TD

    Abstract
    Certain sounds, for example, the squeal of chalk on a blackboard, are typically perceived as highly unpleasant. This study addressed the question of what aspects of the auditory representation of such sounds are associated with judgments of unpleasantness. Participants rated the perceived unpleasantness of a large number of sounds that included "griding" and other unpleasant sounds. A multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) model was then built to relate the ratings of unpleasantness with an auditory representation derived from a model of processing in the auditory pathway. The "existence region" of unpleasantness in the auditory space of frequency-temporal modulation was determined after the PLS model had been validated by predicting the unpleasantness of novel sounds from the auditory representation. It was observed that the existence region corresponded to spectral frequencies between 2500 and 5500 Hz, and temporal modulations in the range 1-16 Hz.

    PMID: 19206807 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Variations of road traffic noise in residential areas.
    Related Articles

    Variations of road traffic noise in residential areas.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Dec;124(6):3568-75

    Authors: Makarewicz R, Zółtowski M

    Abstract
    The ability to predict road noise in urban area is important. The community noise equivalent level (L(den)) varies from day to day (weekdays, weekends, holidays, etc.). There is a need to compromise between the accuracy in the determination of L(den) and limited resources of input data, the measuring equipment, and time. The problem can be managed using the method proposed in this study. It requires only one short-term measurement of the time-average sound level, L(Aeq,T).

    PMID: 19206786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Evaluating roadside noise barriers using an annoyance-reduction criterion.
    Related Articles

    Evaluating roadside noise barriers using an annoyance-reduction criterion.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Dec;124(6):3561-7

    Authors: Nilsson ME, Andéhn M, Leśna P

    Abstract
    A common indicator of effectiveness for roadside noise barriers is the reduction in A-weighted sound pressure level (L(A)). The present experimental study considered alternative indicators using an annoyance-reduction criterion. A large number of 8 s experimental sounds were created from binaural recordings conducted at various distances from a highway at a location with a 4.6 m high roadside barrier (barrier sounds) and at a location along the same road with no barrier (nonbarrier sounds). Eighteen listeners scaled the annoyance of the experimental sounds with the method of magnitude estimation. The barrier sounds recorded 10-45 m from the road and nonbarrier sounds recorded 50-200 m from the road were of similar L(A). Despite this, the barrier sounds were found to be more annoying than the nonbarrier sounds. The annoyance difference corresponded to approximately a 3 dB increase in L(A) and was mainly related to the barrier sounds' higher relative level of low-frequency sound. This suggests that L(A) reduction may not be a valid indicator of the annoyance reduction caused by a noise barrier. The loudness level (ISO 532B) and a low-frequency corrected sound pressure level (L(A) ( *)) were found to be better than L(A) as indicators of the barrier's annoyance-reduction efficiency.

    PMID: 19206785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Evaluation and analysis of road traffic noise in Asansol: an industrial town of eastern India.
    Related Articles

    Evaluation and analysis of road traffic noise in Asansol: an industrial town of eastern India.

    Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2008 Sep;5(3):165-71

    Authors: Banerjee D, Chakraborty SK, Bhattacharyya S, Gangopadhyay A

    Abstract
    The objectives of the study were to monitor and assess the road traffic noise in its spatial-temporal aspect in an urban area. The paper discusses the observations, results and their interpretation based on the study. Noise recordings from site, collected from April 2006 to March 2006, were used for statistical analysis and generation of various noise indices. Noise maps were also created for impact analysis and formulation of Noise Risk Zones. Mean Ldn value ranged between 55.1 and 87.3 dB (A). Day time Leq level ranged between 51.2 and 89.0 dB (A), where it ranged between 43.5 and 81.9 dB (A) during night. The study reveals that present noise level in all the locations exceeds the limit prescribed by CPCB. Based on the finding it can be said that the population in this industrial town are exposed to significantly high noise level, which is caused mostly due to road traffic.

    PMID: 19139535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep.
    Related Articles

    Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep.

    Int J Psychophysiol. 2009 May;72(2):179-86

    Authors: Graham JM, Janssen SA, Vos H, Miedema HM

    Abstract
    The relationships between road and rail traffic noise with pre-ejection period (PEP) and with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during sleep, as indices of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system tone, were investigated in the field (36 subjects, with 188 and 192 valid subject nights for PEP and RSA, respectively). Two analyses were conducted. The first analysis investigated the overall relationships across the entire sleep period. A second analysis investigated differences in the relationships between the first and second halves of the sleep period. Separate multilevel linear regression models for PEP and RSA were employed. Potential covariates for each model were selected from the same pool of variables, which included: gender, age, body-mass index, education level, traffic noise source type, intake of medication, caffeine, alcohol and cigarette smoke, and hindrance during sleep due to the ambulatory recordings. RSA models were adjusted for respiration rate. Mean indoor traffic noise exposure was negatively related to mean RSA during the sleep period, specifically during the second half of the sleep period. Both respiration rate and age were negatively associated with RSA. No significant relationships were observed for PEP. The results indicate that higher indoor traffic noise exposure levels may lead to cardiac parasympathetic withdrawal during sleep, specifically during the second half of the sleep period. No effect of indoor traffic noise on cardiac sympathetic tone was observed.

    PMID: 19105970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.
    Related Articles

    The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.

    Percept Mot Skills. 2008 Oct;107(2):396-402

    Authors: Roth EA, Smith KH

    Abstract
    This study investigated the effect of music listening for performance on a 25-question portion of the analytical section of the Graduate Record Exam by 72 undergraduate students (M age 21.9 yr.). Five levels of an auditory condition were based on Mozart Piano Sonata No. 3 (K. 281), Movement I (Allegro); a rhythm excerpt; a melody excerpt; traffic sounds; and silence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the stimuli. After a 5-min., 43-sec. (length of the first Allegro movement) listening period, participants answered the questions. Analysis indicated participants achieved significantly higher mean scores after all auditory conditions than those in the silent condition. No statistically significant pairwise mean difference appeared between scores for the auditory conditions. Findings were interpreted in terms of an arousal framework, suggesting the higher means in all auditory conditions may reflect immediate exposure to auditory stimuli.

    PMID: 19093601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Annoyance responses to stable and changing aircraft noise exposure.
    Related Articles

    Annoyance responses to stable and changing aircraft noise exposure.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Nov;124(5):2930-41

    Authors: Brink M, Wirth KE, Schierz C, Thomann G, Bauer G

    Abstract
    This article reports the two extensive aircraft noise annoyance surveys subsequently carried out among residents in the vicinity of Zurich Airport in 2001 and 2003 in order to update and validate existing exposure-effect relationships for aircraft noise and annoyance in Switzerland. Logistic and polynomial approximations of the exposure-annoyance relationships for both the years 2001 and 2003 are presented for the L(dn), L(den), and L(A,eq24) noise metrics. The results confirm other recently published international research and provide further evidence that community annoyance due to aircraft noise has increased over the past decades. Between the two survey years, a considerable amount of early morning and late evening flight operations have been relocated to use an other runway than before; thus both the effects of a recent step decrease and recent step increase on the exposure-annoyance relationship could be investigated. Residents that experienced a step increase elicited a quite pronounced over-reaction of annoyance which correlated with the magnitude of the change. Two logistic regression models are provided to forecast the effects of changes in exposure during shoulder hours in the early morning and the late evening.

    PMID: 19045781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.
    Related Articles

    Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.

    Occup Environ Med. 2009 May;66(5):347-50

    Authors: Davies HW, Vlaanderen JJ, Henderson SB, Brauer M

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Both air and noise pollution associated with motor vehicle traffic have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Similarities in pollution source and health outcome mean that there is potential for noise to confound studies of air pollution and cardiovascular disease, and vice versa, or for more complex interactions to occur.
    METHODS: The correlations between 2-week average roadside concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) and short term average noise levels (L(eq,5min)) for 103 urban sites with varying traffic, environment and infrastructure characteristics were examined.
    RESULTS: The Pearson correlation coefficient for L(eq,5min) and NO(2) was 0.53, and for L(eq,5min) and NO(X) , 0.64. Factors influencing the degree of correlation were number of lanes on the closest road, number of cars or trucks during noise sampling and presence of a major intersection.
    CONCLUSIONS: We recommend measurement of both pollutants in future studies of traffic-related pollution and cardiovascular disease to allow for more sophisticated analysis of this relationship.

    PMID: 19017692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The joint association of air pollution and noise from road traffic with cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study.
    Related Articles

    The joint association of air pollution and noise from road traffic with cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study.

    Occup Environ Med. 2009 Apr;66(4):243-50

    Authors: Beelen R, Hoek G, Houthuijs D, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, Fischer P, Schouten LJ, Armstrong B, Brunekreef B

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: Associations between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution and noise together were investigated.
    METHODS: Data from the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (120,852 subjects; follow-up 1987-1996) were used. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted for the association between cardiovascular mortality and exposure to black smoke, traffic intensity on the nearest road and road traffic noise at the home address.
    RESULTS: The correlations between traffic noise and background black smoke, and traffic intensity on the nearest road were moderate at 0.24 and 0.30, respectively. Traffic intensity was associated with cardiovascular mortality, with highest relative risk (95% confidence interval) for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality being 1.11 (1.03 to 1.20) (increment 10,000 motor vehicles/24 h). Relative risks for black smoke concentrations were elevated for cerebrovascular (1.39 (0.99 to 1.94)) and heart failure mortality (1.75 (1.00 to 3.05)) (increment 10 microg/m(3)). These associations were insensitive to adjustment for traffic noise. There was an excess of cardiovascular mortality in the highest noise category (>65 dB(A)), with elevated risks for IHD (1.15 (0.86 to 1.53)) and heart failure mortality (1.99 (1.05 to 3.79)). After adjustment for black smoke and traffic intensity, noise risk reduced to unity for IHD mortality and was slightly reduced for heart failure mortality.
    CONCLUSIONS: Associations between black smoke concentrations and traffic intensity on the nearest road with specific cardiovascular causes of death were not explained by traffic noise in this study.

    PMID: 19017691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road-traffic noise and factors influencing noise annoyance in an urban population.
    Related Articles

    Road-traffic noise and factors influencing noise annoyance in an urban population.

    Environ Int. 2009 Apr;35(3):552-6

    Authors: Jakovljevic B, Paunovic K, Belojevic G

    Abstract
    Noise annoyance is influenced by sound-related factors: type of noise, noise level and frequency, and person-related factors-physiological, psychological, and social factors. Prior to implementation of the Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council in Serbia, there was a need for the first comprehensive study on noise annoyance in Serbian urban population. The aim of this study was to determine principal factors for high noise annoyance in an adult urban population and to assess their predictive value. A cross-sectional study was performed on 3097 adult residents of a downtown municipality in Belgrade (1217 men and 1880 women), aged 18-96 years. Equivalent noise levels [Leq (dBA)] were measured during day, evening and night in all streets of the municipality. Noise annoyance was estimated using self-reported annoyance scale. Noise annoyance showed strong correlation with noise levels, personal characteristics and some housing conditions. Dose-response relationship was found between the percentage of highly annoyed residents and Lden. Logistic regression model identified increased risk for a high level of noise annoyance with regard to: orientation of living room/bedroom toward the street (Odds Ratio=2.60; 95% Confidence Interval=2.04-3.31), duration of stay at apartment during the day [OR=1.04, 95%CI=1.02-1.06 (per hour)], noise sensitivity [OR=1.04, 95%CI=1.03-1.04 (per scale unit)], and nighttime road-traffic noise level [OR=1.03, 95%CI=1.02-1.04 (per decibel)].

    PMID: 19007991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Hearing status among cabin crew in a Swedish commercial airline company.
    Related Articles

    Hearing status among cabin crew in a Swedish commercial airline company.

    Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009 Jul;82(7):887-92

    Authors: Lindgren T, Wieslander G, Nordquist T, Dammström BG, Norbäck D

    Abstract
    PURPOSE: To study hearing loss in commercial airline cabin crew (CC).
    METHODS: Totally 155 male and 781 female CC (n = 936) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiometric tests during 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing loss. The mean test values at 3, 4, 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing loss. Data were compared with a Swedish population (n = 603) who were not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured in different aircraft.
    RESULTS: Leq was 78-84 dB (A), maximum A-weighted exposure was 114 dB. Median values for all ages were close to the reference group. No association was found between years of employment and hearing loss, when adjusting for age and gender by multiple logistic regression analysis.
    CONCLUSION: Cabin crew are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard, and have normal age-matched hearing threshold levels.

    PMID: 18972126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.
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    A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Nov;158(1-4):155-67

    Authors: Oyedepo OS, Saadu AA

    Abstract
    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

    PMID: 18846431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Optimally control urban railway noise by sound propagation path].
    Related Articles

    [Optimally control urban railway noise by sound propagation path].

    Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2008 Aug;29(8):2372-6

    Authors: Di GQ, Li ZG, Chen Y, Zhang BJ

    Abstract
    In order to control railway noise pollution in urban areas, the residential district located near the Zhegan railway in Hangzhou urban was taken for example, and some controlling measures were proposed based on the investigation in railway noise impact as well as the planning of the district, the environmental scene and the project devises. The measures included setting man-made soil slopes, noise barriers and virescence. Combining some of them could be a typical noise reduction scheme. The professional software Cadna/A was used to predict the noise reduction results of every scheme. Results show that the maximal difference of noise reduction is 19.4 dB and the noise reduction effect of the second scheme is best. However, if only railway noise influence is considered, the first scheme is best. The research results can provide reference for residential districts planning and noise control near the railway in urban areas.

    PMID: 18839603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Occupational hypoacusis in transport workers].
    Related Articles

    [Occupational hypoacusis in transport workers].

    Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2008;(3):11-4

    Authors: Pankova VB

    Abstract
    The article concerns prevalence and causes of occupational neurosensory hypoacusis (ONH) in transport workers exposed to intensive industrial noise. Most often ONH is diagnosed in civil aviation air crews and railway locomotive crews aged 45-50 years with service history 15 years and longer. Because ONH morbidity has a trend to rise, it is necessary to update medical criteria of professional fitness and rules of medical examination of transport workers, especially those engaged in safety control. International classifications and scientific approaches may be considered. Innovations in noise reduction, modern hearing protection measures, early diagnosis and rehabilitation must be promoted.

    PMID: 18833089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Study on the health status of the residents near military airbases in Pyeongtaek City].
    Related Articles

    [Study on the health status of the residents near military airbases in Pyeongtaek City].

    J Prev Med Public Health. 2008 Sep;41(5):307-14

    Authors: Kim H, Roh S, Kwon HJ, Paik KC, Rhee MY, Jeong JY, Lim MH, Koo MJ, Kim CH, Kim HY, Lim JH, Kim DH

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: We conducted an epidemiologic survey to evaluate the effect of the aircraft noise exposure on the health of the residents near the military airbases in Pyeongtaek City.
    METHODS: The evaluation of environmental noise level, questionnaire survey, and health examination were performed for 917 residents. The study population consisted of four groups: subjects who lived in the village close to the fighter airbase (high exposure), subjects who lived along the course of fighters (intermediate exposure), and subjects near a helicopter airbase, and the control group.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of the aircraft noise related accident and irritable bowel syndrome in the exposure groups were higher than that of the control group. The risks of noise induced hearing loss, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were higher in the exposed groups than in the control group. The prevalence of anxiety disorder and primary insomnia were higher in the exposed groups than in the control group. Prevalence odd ratios of the risk for primary insomnia after adjusting age, sex, agricultural noise, and occupation were 4.03 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56-10.47] for the subject near the helicopter airbase, 1.23 (95% CI 0.40-3.76) for those intermediately exposed to fighter noise, and 4.99 (95% CI 2.14-11.64) for those highly exposed to fighter noise.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the aircraft noise may have adverse effects on hearing function, cardiovascular health and mental health. Therefore, it seems to be needed to take proper measures including the control of the aircraft noise and the management of the exposed people's health.

    PMID: 18827498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Road traffic noise, sensitivity, annoyance and self-reported health--a structural equation model exercise.
    Related Articles

    Road traffic noise, sensitivity, annoyance and self-reported health--a structural equation model exercise.

    Environ Int. 2009 Jan;35(1):91-7

    Authors: Fyhri A, Klaeboe R

    Abstract
    The proposed effect of road traffic noise on hypertension and ischemic heart disease finds mixed empirical support. One problem with many studies is that the directions of the causal relationships are not identified. This is often the case when cross-sectional data and multivariate regression models are utilised. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between road traffic noise and health. More specifically the relationships between noise complaints, noise sensitivity and subjectively reported hypertension and heart problems were investigated. 1842 respondents in Oslo, Norway were interviewed about their experience of the local environment and their subjective health complaints. The interviews were conducted as part of two surveys. Individual measures of air pollution (NO(2)) and noise (Lden) were calculated. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Models. Only sensitivity to noise is related to hypertension and chest pain. No relationships between noise exposure and health complaints were identified. Rather than noise being the causal agent leading to health problems, the results suggest that the noise-health relationships in these studies may be spurious. It is conceivable that individual vulnerability is reflected both in ill health and in being sensitive to noise. The benefit of including more contextual variables in a model of noise-health relationships is supported.

    PMID: 18823662 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Estimating human exposure to transport noise in central Dublin, Ireland.
    Related Articles

    Estimating human exposure to transport noise in central Dublin, Ireland.

    Environ Int. 2009 Feb;35(2):298-302

    Authors: Murphy E, King EA, Rice HJ

    Abstract
    This paper reports on research conducted to determine estimates of the extent of environmental noise exposure from road transport on residents and workers in central Dublin, Ireland. The Harmonoise calculation method is used to calculate noise values for the study area while a Geographical Information System (GIS) is utilised as a platform upon which levels of noise exposure are estimated. Residential exposure is determined for L(den) and L(night) while worker exposure is determined for L(den). In order to analyse the potential of traffic management as a noise abatement measure, traffic was redirected from the main residential areas to alternative road links and the revised exposure levels were determined. The results show that the extent of noise exposure in Dublin is considerable, and in relative terms, it is worse for the night-time period. In addition, the results suggest also that traffic management measures have the potential to lead to significant reductions in the level of noise exposure provided that careful consideration is given to the impact of traffic flows on residential populations.

    PMID: 18814913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.
    Related Articles

    Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.

    Int J Psychophysiol. 2008 Dec;70(3):184-91

    Authors: Saremi M, Grenèche J, Bonnefond A, Rohmer O, Eschenlauer A, Tassi P

    Abstract
    Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises.

    PMID: 18773929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise effects on sleep: a systematic comparison of EEG awakenings and automatically detected cardiac activations.
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    Aircraft noise effects on sleep: a systematic comparison of EEG awakenings and automatically detected cardiac activations.

    Physiol Meas. 2008 Sep;29(9):1089-103

    Authors: Basner M, Müller U, Elmenhorst EM, Kluge G, Griefahn B

    Abstract
    Polysomnography is the gold standard for investigating noise effects on sleep, but data collection and analysis are sumptuous and expensive. We recently developed an algorithm for the automatic identification of cardiac activations associated with cortical arousals, which uses heart rate information derived from a single electrocardiogram (ECG) channel. We hypothesized that cardiac activations can be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. Polysomnographic EEG awakenings and automatically detected cardiac activations were systematically compared using laboratory data of 112 subjects (47 male, mean+/-SD age 37.9+/-13 years), 985 nights and 23,855 aircraft noise events (ANEs). The probability of automatically detected cardiac activations increased monotonically with increasing maximum sound pressure levels of ANEs, exceeding the probability of EEG awakenings by up to 18.1%. If spontaneous reactions were taken into account, exposure-response curves were practically identical for EEG awakenings and cardiac activations. Automatically detected cardiac activations may be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. More investigations are needed to further validate the ECG algorithm in the field and to investigate inter-individual differences in its ability to predict EEG awakenings. This inexpensive, objective and non-invasive method facilitates large-scale field studies on the effects of traffic noise on sleep.

    PMID: 18756029 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Potential problems with environmental sound barriers when used in mitigating surface transportation noise.
    Related Articles

    Potential problems with environmental sound barriers when used in mitigating surface transportation noise.

    Sci Total Environ. 2008 Nov 1;405(1-3):173-9

    Authors: Arenas JP

    Abstract
    The public, increasingly well-informed about the problem of excessive noise, is taking actions for the development of new transport infrastructure projects and improvement of existing infrastructure. In addition, many countries have implemented mandatory Environmental Impact Assessment procedures. As a result, the construction of sound barriers has become a common measure, which can be used by an agency to mitigate potentially significant noise impacts. A sound barrier, eventually, will become part of the surrounding landscape and could be a cause of impact for ecosystems, the road users and those who live alongside the road. Basically, this article discusses these potential effects in the context of environmental assessment procedures. In addition, results of a pilot survey conducted at a residential area affected by the construction of a barrier are presented. Although most residents felt that sleeping conditions improved after the barrier was built, most important negative reactions are the loss of sunlight and visual impact.

    PMID: 18678395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Didn't hear it coming. Must hybrid cars be louder to be safe for pedestrians?
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    Didn't hear it coming. Must hybrid cars be louder to be safe for pedestrians?

    Sci Am. 2008 Aug;299(2):22, 24

    Authors: Simpson S

    PMID: 18666672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Nighttime road-traffic noise and arterial hypertension in an urban population.
    Related Articles

    Nighttime road-traffic noise and arterial hypertension in an urban population.

    Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):775-81

    Authors: Belojević GA, Jakovljević BD, Stojanov VJ, Slepcević VZ, Paunović KZ

    Abstract
    Commonly used daytime measurements in previous investigations on community noise and arterial hypertension (AH) may be a source of exposure bias, as urban residents spend most of their daytime hours out of the home on workdays. For this reason, we focused on the relation of nighttime noise and AH. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 2,503 (995 men and 1,508 women) adult residents of a downtown Belgrade municipality. The inclusion criteria were a period of residence longer than 10 years and a bedroom oriented toward the street. The exclusion criteria were a high level of noise annoyance at work and diseases related to AH. Noise measurements were performed in all 70 streets of the municipality. The streets were grouped into noisy areas (equivalent noise level [Leq]>45 dB(A)) and quiet areas (Leq< or =45 dB(A)). The residents were interviewed in regard to antihypertensive therapy. Subjects who responded that they had not received such therapy were contacted for blood pressure measurements with mercury sphygmomanometer. Possible confounding factors: family history of AH, age, body mass index, smoking habits, physical activity and alcohol consumption were controlled for. The proportions of men with AH in the noisy and quiet areas were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for AH was 1.58; the 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 1.03-2.42; and the probability value was 0.038, when men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. This relation was statistically insignificant for women: adjusted OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.59-1.38; p: 0.644. This cross-sectional study showed that nighttime urban road-traffic noise might be related to occurrence of AH in men.

    PMID: 18633190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The effects of chronic exposure to aircraft noise on the prevalence of hypertension.
    Related Articles

    The effects of chronic exposure to aircraft noise on the prevalence of hypertension.

    Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):641-7

    Authors: Rhee MY, Kim HY, Roh SC, Kim HJ, Kwon HJ

    Abstract
    Exposure to environmental noise has been suggested to increase the prevalence of hypertension. The present study investigated whether or not chronic exposure to military aircraft noise is related to an increased prevalence of hypertension. The study population consisted of 137 subjects (mean age 60+/-14 years) who lived within 5 km of a helicopter airbase and 486 subjects (58+/-16 years) living within 5 km of a fighter-jet airbase. A control group consisted of 252 subjects (58+/-16 years) not exposed to aircraft noise. Overall, the subjects exposed to military aircraft noise had a higher prevalence of hypertension than those in the control group (p=0.037). However, whereas those exposed to helicopter noise had a higher prevalence than the control group (p=0.020), those exposed to fighter-jet noise did not (p=0.094). The prevalence of known hypertension in the helicopter group was higher than in the control group (p=0.024). The prevalence odds ratio for hypertension adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, current smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes, and regular exercise was 1.62 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02-2.59) for the subjects exposed to helicopter noise, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.87-1.74) for those exposed to fighter-jet noise. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to military aircraft noise may be associated with hypertension. The difference in the effects between helicopter and fighter-jet noise implies that different kinds of noise will have different influences on the prevalence of hypertension.

    PMID: 18633175 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Hearing status among commercial pilots in a Swedish airline company.
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    Hearing status among commercial pilots in a Swedish airline company.

    Int J Audiol. 2008 Aug;47(8):515-9

    Authors: Lindgren T, Wieslander G, Dammstrom BG, Norback D

    Abstract
    The aim was to study hearing impairment in commercial pilots. A total of 634 male and 30 female pilots (N=664) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiological tests during the period 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing impairment. The mean values for the hearing test at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing impairment. Data was compared with a general adult Swedish population (n=603) not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels gate to gate (Leq) were measured in the cockpit of different aircraft. Leq was 75-81 dB (A), peak exposures were 105 dB (A) from the cabin call signal. Median values were similar as in the reference group at all ages. There was no association between years of employment, tobacco smoking, and hearing impairment, when adjusted for age and gender by multiple logistic regressions analysis. In conclusion, pilots are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard of 85 dB (A), with short peak exposures above the standard, and have normal age-matched hearing thresholds.

    PMID: 18608533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Solving noise hazards of railroads.
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    Solving noise hazards of railroads.

    Occup Health Saf. 2008 Jun;77(6):100, 102, 104

    Authors: Bessette RS

    PMID: 18578251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • The annoyance of snoring.
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    The annoyance of snoring.

    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Feb;266(2):293-6

    Authors: Dreher A, Rader T, Patscheider M, Klemens C, Schmidt M, Baker F, de la Chaux R

    Abstract
    Is the annoyance of snoring a reliable tool for the measurement of snoring or does it depend more on the sensitivity of the listener? During an automatized hearing experiment, 550 representative snoring sequences, recorded during polysomnography, were randomly presented to ten examiners for the evaluation of their annoyance (0-100). The mean annoyance score for each snoring sound and the covariance parameters for rater and snoring sounds (restricted maximum likelihood method) were calculated. The average annoyance rating of all snoring sequences was 63.9+/-23.0, the most acceptable snoring sequence rating was 49.2+/-28.0, the most annoying rating was 77.7+/-16.4. The covariance parameters were estimated as 28.7% for the rater and 22.3% for the snoring sound. Our results show that the listeners' noise sensitivity is at least equally relevant for the snoring annoyance as the snoring sound itself.

    PMID: 18574588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Testing a theory of aircraft noise annoyance: a structural equation analysis.
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    Testing a theory of aircraft noise annoyance: a structural equation analysis.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Jun;123(6):4250-60

    Authors: Kroesen M, Molin EJ, van Wee B

    Abstract
    Previous research has stressed the relevance of nonacoustical factors in the perception of aircraft noise. However, it is largely empirically driven and lacks a sound theoretical basis. In this paper, a theoretical model which explains noise annoyance based on the psychological stress theory is empirically tested. The model is estimated by applying structural equation modeling based on data from residents living in the vicinity of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in The Netherlands. The model provides a good model fit and indicates that concern about the negative health effects of noise and pollution, perceived disturbance, and perceived control and coping capacity are the most important variables that explain noise annoyance. Furthermore, the model provides evidence for the existence of two reciprocal relationships between (1) perceived disturbance and noise annoyance and (2) perceived control and coping capacity and noise annoyance. Lastly, the model yielded two unexpected results. Firstly, the variables noise sensitivity and fear related to the noise source were unable to explain additional variance in the endogenous variables of the model and were therefore excluded from the model. And secondly, the size of the total effect of noise exposure on noise annoyance was relatively small. The paper concludes with some recommended directions for further research.

    PMID: 18537376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • "Multilevel grouped regression for analyzing self-reported health in relation to environmental factors: the model and its application" by C. G. M. Groothuis-Oudshoorn and H. M. E. Miedema.
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    "Multilevel grouped regression for analyzing self-reported health in relation to environmental factors: the model and its application" by C. G. M. Groothuis-Oudshoorn and H. M. E. Miedema.

    Biom J. 2008 Jun;50(3):446-7; author reply 448

    Authors: Klaeboe R

    PMID: 18537124 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Health risk for population residing near airports].
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    [Health risk for population residing near airports].

    Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2008;(4):42-3

    Authors: Fokin SG, Bobkova TE

    PMID: 18522212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Influence of poor factors of airports on human health].
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    [Influence of poor factors of airports on human health].

    Gig Sanit. 2008 Mar-Apr;(2):50-2

    Authors: Pochekaeva EI

    Abstract
    The hygienic study conducted in Rostov-on-Don has shown that air transport and airports are important sources of physical and chemical pollution of the environment. Human health examinations served to illustrate the adverse impact of airports on the environmental and hygienic living conditions of the population. The performed studies provided the basis for purpose-oriented program to enhance the environment and to reduce morbidity rates in accordance with the National Environmental Hygiene Program. The developed algorithm of the assessment and reduction of a risk for diseases under the influence of poor factors associated with the activities of airports is designed to provide the authorities and concerned organizations with information, to make managerial decisions, and to work out health-improving measures.

    PMID: 18509916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Investigation of road-traffic noise and annoyance in Beijing: a cross-sectional study of 4th Ring Road.
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    Investigation of road-traffic noise and annoyance in Beijing: a cross-sectional study of 4th Ring Road.

    Arch Environ Occup Health. 2008;63(1):27-33

    Authors: Li HJ, Yu WB, Lu JQ, Zeng L, Li N, Zhao YM

    Abstract
    The authors aimed to evaluate traffic noise level and noise annoyance in Beijing and the impact of the noise on the quality of life of the residences. The authors performed a cross-sectional study in a 12-floor college dormitory near 4th Ring Road in Beijing, China. The north-side rooms of the building were noisy and had windows facing the road. The authors measured both indoor and outdoor noise. Using both a 5-item verbal scale and a 0-10 numerical scale, they questioned a sample of 1,293 college students living in the dormitory about road-traffic noise annoyance. The results showed that the average outdoor day-to-night noise level was 79.2 dB(A) in the noisy rooms and 64.0 dB(A) in the quiet rooms. Nearly 39% of the respondents living in the noisy rooms indicated that they were highly annoyed by traffic noise according to the response on the verbal scale, and 50% of the respondents living in the noisy rooms were highly annoyed according to the numerical scale.

    PMID: 18479995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Quiet, please: observations on noise.
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    Quiet, please: observations on noise.

    Explore (NY). 2008 May-Jun;4(3):157-63

    Authors: Dossey L

    PMID: 18466842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise annoys.
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    Noise annoys.

    J R Soc Promot Health. 2008 Mar;128(2):58-9

    Authors: McKenzie S

    PMID: 18402173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.
    Related Articles

    Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Apr;151(1-4):1-8

    Authors: Lei B, Yang X, Yang J

    Abstract
    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process of the third runway building project of Pudong International Airport is briefly introduced in the paper. The basic principle, the features, and the operation steps of newly imported FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) are discussed for evaluating the aircraft noise impacts. The prediction of the aircraft noise and the countermeasures for the noise mitigation are developed, which includes the reasonable runway location, the optimized land use, the selection of low noise aircrafts, the Fly Quit Program, the relocation of sensitive receptors and the noise insulation of sensitive buildings. Finally, the expansion project is justified and its feasibility is confirmed.

    PMID: 18373206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Attitudinal response towards road traffic noise in the industrial town of Asansol, India.
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    Attitudinal response towards road traffic noise in the industrial town of Asansol, India.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Apr;151(1-4):37-44

    Authors: Banerjee D, Chakraborty SK, Bhattacharyya S, Gangopadhyay A

    Abstract
    The major objective of the investigation was to evaluate the road traffic noise and its likely impacts on the local community of Asansol city (West Bengal, India) by monitoring and modeling. The attitudinal response of local population due to existing vehicular noise is presented in the paper. Noise and Attitudinal Survey was conducted at 25 locations. A total of 869 individuals were surveyed. The relationship between traffic noise levels and annoyance was studied using correlation, linear and multiple linear regressions analysis. The average L(dn) value was 73.28 +/- 8.51 dB(A) (55.1-87.3); The Traffic Noise Index (TNI) was 80.62 +/- 15.88 dB(A) (49.4-115.8). The mean value of percent of population Highly Annoyed (%HA) due to road traffic noise was 26.50 +/- 3.37 (19.44-33.2), whereas the mean dissatisfaction score (MDS) was 2.96 +/- 0.90 (1.04-4.45). Annoyance modeling was also performed based on field data. It can be said that Noise values gives desirable annoyance predicting values in comparison to vehicular data.

    PMID: 18369730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Acute effects of night-time noise exposure on blood pressure in populations living near airports.
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    Acute effects of night-time noise exposure on blood pressure in populations living near airports.

    Eur Heart J. 2008 Mar;29(5):658-64

    Authors: Haralabidis AS, Dimakopoulou K, Vigna-Taglianti F, Giampaolo M, Borgini A, Dudley ML, Pershagen G, Bluhm G, Houthuijs D, Babisch W, Velonakis M, Katsouyanni K, Jarup L, HYENA Consortium

    Abstract
    AIMS: Within the framework of the HYENA (hypertension and exposure to noise near airports) project we investigated the effect of short-term changes of transportation or indoor noise levels on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during night-time sleep in 140 subjects living near four major European airports.
    METHODS AND RESULTS: Non-invasive ambulatory BP measurements at 15 min intervals were performed. Noise was measured during the night sleeping period and recorded digitally for the identification of the source of a noise event. Exposure variables included equivalent noise level over 1 and 15 min and presence/absence of event (with LAmax > 35 dB) before each BP measurement. Random effects models for repeated measurements were applied. An increase in BP (6.2 mmHg (0.63-12) for systolic and 7.4 mmHg (3.1, 12) for diastolic) was observed over 15 min intervals in which an aircraft event occurred. A non-significant increase in HR was also observed (by 5.4 b.p.m.). Less consistent effects were observed on HR. When the actual maximum noise level of an event was assessed there were no systematic differences in the effects according to the noise source.
    CONCLUSION: Effects of noise exposure on elevated subsequent BP measurements were clearly shown. The effect size of the noise level appears to be independent of the noise source.

    PMID: 18270210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Annoyance and disturbance of daily activities from road traffic noise in Canada.
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    Annoyance and disturbance of daily activities from road traffic noise in Canada.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):784-92

    Authors: Michaud DS, Keith SE, McMurchy D

    Abstract
    This study evaluated road traffic noise annoyance in Canada in relation to activity interference, subject concerns about noise and self-reported distance to a major road. Random digit dialing was employed to survey a representative sample of 2565 Canadians 15 years of age and older. Respondents highly annoyed by traffic noise were significantly more likely to perceive annoyance to negatively impact health, live closer to a heavily traveled road and report that traffic noise often interfered with daily activities. Sex, age, education level, community size and province had statistically significant associations with traffic noise annoyance. High noise annoyance consistently correlated with frequent interference of activities. Reducing noise at night (10 pm-7 am) was more important than during the rest of the day.

    PMID: 18247883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of social, demographical and behavioral factors on the sound level evaluation in urban open spaces.
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    Effects of social, demographical and behavioral factors on the sound level evaluation in urban open spaces.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):772-83

    Authors: Yu L, Kang J

    Abstract
    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of social, demographical and behavioral factors as well as long-term sound experience on the subjective evaluation of sound level in urban open public spaces. This is based on a series of large scale surveys in 19 urban open spaces in Europe and China. The results suggest that the effects of social/demographical factors, including age, gender, occupation, education and residential status, on the sound level evaluation are generally insignificant, although occupation and education are two related factors and both correlate to the sound level evaluation more than other factors. The effects of some behavioral factors, including wearing earphones, reading/writing and moving activities, are also insignificant on the sound level evaluation, but the watching behavior is highly related to the sound level evaluation. Compared to the social, demographical and behavioral factors, the long-term sound experience, i.e. the acoustic environment at home, significantly affect the sound level evaluation in urban open spaces. It is important to note that between the social/demographical factors, there are generally significant correlations, although the correlation coefficients may not be high. It is also noted that there are considerable variations between different urban open spaces.

    PMID: 18247882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effect of background noise levels on community annoyance from aircraft noise.
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    Effect of background noise levels on community annoyance from aircraft noise.

    J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):766-71

    Authors: Lim C, Kim J, Hong J, Lee S

    Abstract
    A study of community annoyance caused by exposures to civil aircraft noise was carried out in 20 sites around Gimpo and Gimhae international airports to investigate the effect of background noise in terms of dose-effect relationships between aircraft noise levels and annoyance responses under real conditions. Aircraft noise levels were mainly measured using airport noise monitoring systems, B&K type 3597. Social surveys were administered to people living within 100 m of noise measurement sites. The question relating to the annoyance of aircraft noise was answered on an 11-point numerical scale. The randomly selected respondents, who were aged between 18 and 70 years, completed the questionnaire independently. In total, 753 respondents participated in social surveys. The result shows that annoyance responses in low background noise regions are much higher than those in high background noise regions, even though aircraft noise levels are the same. It can be concluded that the background noise level is one of the important factors on the estimation of community annoyance from aircraft noise exposure.

    PMID: 18247881 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Airport-related air pollution and noise.
    Related Articles

    Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    J Occup Environ Hyg. 2008 Feb;5(2):119-29

    Authors: Cohen BS, Bronzaft AL, Heikkinen M, Goodman J, Nádas A

    Abstract
    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

    PMID: 18097935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Residential proximity to large airports and potential health impacts in New York State.
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    Residential proximity to large airports and potential health impacts in New York State.

    Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008 Jul;81(7):797-804

    Authors: Lin S, Munsie JP, Herdt-Losavio M, Hwang SA, Civerolo K, McGarry K, Gentile T

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether residents living near commercial airports have increased rates of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases compared to those living farther away from these airports.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study included all residents living within 12 miles from the center of each three airports (Rochester in Rochester, LaGuardia in New York City and MacArthur in Long Island). We obtained hospital admission data collected by the NYS Department of Health for all eligible residents who were admitted for asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, for children aged 0-4 years, bronchitis and bronchiolitis during 1995-2000. Exposure indicators were distance from the airport (< or =5 miles versus >5 miles) and dominant wind-flow patterns from the airport (>75th percentile versus < or =75th percentile), as well as their combinations.
    RESULTS: Increased relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory conditions were found for residents living within 5 miles from the airports (1.47; 95% CI 1.41, 1.52 for Rochester and 1.38; 95% CI 1.37, 1.39 for LaGuardia) compared to those living >5 miles. We did not find positive associations between wind-flow patterns and respiratory hospital admissions among the residents in any airport vicinity. No differences were observed for MacArthur airport using either exposure measure.
    CONCLUSION: There is the suggestion that residential proximity to some airports may increase hospital admissions for respiratory disorders. However, there are many factors that could influence this association that may differ by airport, which should be measured and studied further.

    PMID: 17938951 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Aircraft noise: effects on macro- and microstructure of sleep.
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    Aircraft noise: effects on macro- and microstructure of sleep.

    Sleep Med. 2008 May;9(4):382-7

    Authors: Basner M, Glatz C, Griefahn B, Penzel T, Samel A

    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: The effects of aircraft noise on sleep macrostructure (Rechtschaffen and Kales) and microstructure (American Sleep Disorders Association [ASDA] arousal criteria) were investigated.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: For each of 10 subjects (mean age 35.3 years, 5 males), a baseline night without aircraft noise (control), and two nights with exposure to 64 noise events with a maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of either 45 or 65 dBA were chosen. Spontaneous and noise-induced alterations during sleep classified as arousals (ARS), changes to lighter sleep stages (CSS), awakenings including changes to sleep stage 1 (AS1), and awakenings (AWR) were analyzed.
    RESULTS: The number of events per night increased in the order AWR, AS1, CSS, and ARS under control conditions as well as under the two noise conditions. Furthermore, probabilities for sleep disruptions increased with increasing noise level. ARS were observed about fourfold compared to AWR, irrespective of control or noise condition.
    CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions investigated, different sleep parameters show different sensitivities, but also different specificities for noise-induced sleep disturbances. We conclude that most information on sleep disturbances can be achieved by investigating robust classic parameters like AWR or AS1, although ASDA electroencephalographic (EEG) arousals might add relevant information in situations with low maximum SPLs, chronic sleep deprivation or chronic exposure.

    PMID: 17870661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Urban road-traffic noise and blood pressure and heart rate in preschool children.
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    Urban road-traffic noise and blood pressure and heart rate in preschool children.

    Environ Int. 2008 Feb;34(2):226-31

    Authors: Belojevic G, Jakovljevic B, Stojanov V, Paunovic K, Ilic J

    Abstract
    Night time noise exposure has very rarely been used in previous studies on the relationship between community noise and children's blood pressure, although children spend a larger part of their night time sleeping at home than adults. For this reason, we focused on night time noise exposure at children's residences and daytime noise at kindergartens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of urban road-traffic noise on children's blood pressure and heart rate. A cross-sectional study was performed on 328 preschool children (174 boys and 154 girls) aged 3-7 years, who attended 10 public kindergartens in Belgrade. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured during night in front of children's residences and during day in front of kindergartens. A residence was regarded noisy if Leq exceeded 45 dB (A) during night and quiet if the Leq was < or =45 dB (A). Noisy and quiet kindergartens were those with daily Leq>60 dB (A) and < or =60 dB (A), respectively. Children's blood pressure was measured with mercury sphygmomanometer. Heart rate was counted by radial artery palpitation for 1 min. The prevalence of children with hypertensive values of blood pressure was 3.96% (13 children, including 8 boys and 5 girls) with higher prevalence in children from noisy residences (5.70%), compared to children from quiet residences (1.48%). The difference was borderline significant (p=0.054). Systolic pressure was significantly higher (5 mm Hg on average) among children from noisy residences and kindergartens, compared to children from both quiet environments (p<0.01). Heart rate was significantly higher (2 beats/min on average) in children from noisy residences, compared to children from quiet residences (p<0.05). Multiple regression, after allowing for possible confounders, showed a significant correlation between noise exposure and children's systolic pressure (B=1.056; p=0.009).

    PMID: 17869340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Air pollution due to traffic, air quality monitoring along three sections of National Highway N-5, Pakistan.
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    Air pollution due to traffic, air quality monitoring along three sections of National Highway N-5, Pakistan.

    Environ Monit Assess. 2008 Jan;136(1-3):219-26

    Authors: Ali M, Athar M

    Abstract
    Transportation system has contributed significantly to the development of human civilization; on the other hand it has an enormous impact on the ambient air quality in several ways. In this paper the air and noise pollution at selected sites along three sections of National Highway was monitored. Pakistan National Highway Authority has started a Highway Improvement program for rehabilitations and maintenance of National highways to improve the traffic flows, and would ultimately improve the air quality along highways. The ambient air quality and noise level was monitored at nine different locations along these sections of highways to quantify the air pollution. The duration of monitoring at individual location was 72 h. The most of the sampling points were near the urban or village population, schools or hospitals, in order to quantify the air pollution at most affected locations along these roads. A database consisting of information regarding the source of emission, local metrology and air quality may be created to assess the profile of air quality in the area.

    PMID: 17385053 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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